Blankets, Brass Tags and Bungalows - E P Kraly

IUSSP XXVth International Population Conference Session 1009 Demography, Human Rights and Ethics Tours, France 20 July 2005 Blankets, Brass Tags and Bungalows: The Role of Population Data Systems in Historical Aboriginal Affairs in Northern Territory, Australia (Draft) Ellen Percy Kraly, Department of Geography, Colgate University Figure 3 Roper River Police Station Report dated 7 September 1908 (SA 16922) Dear Sir I have the honour respectfully to report for your information that the undermentioned natives have been supplied with one blanket each. Lowrey Polly Little Polly Judy Rosie Lucy Linda Dinah Jennie Nellie Polly Little Nellie Polly Nellie Kitty Kitty Jennie Judy Maggie Judy Kitty Minnie Jennie Missey Maggie Ruby Nellie Dandy Tommy Dodd Peter Yellow Ginger Jimmy Powder Judy Tommy Annie Jimmy Tommy Costello Lucy Deaf Tommy Kitty Nellie Bosun Dick Jabarin I have the honour to be Sir Your Obedient Servant James Kelly ...... Roper River Police Station Report dated 7 September 1908 (SA 16922) List of Natives to whom rations have been issued with quantity supplied. 2. 8.1908 Nellie Aged and infirm 3. 8.1908 Judy Aged and infirm 4. 8.1908 Polly Lot of children 4. 8.1908 Jimmy Aged and infirm 18. 8.1908 Polly Aged and infirm 20. 8.1908 Jabarin Sick and leprous All received flour, tobacco, tea and sugar. Signed James Kelly Figure 4 Correspondence documenting the disposal of children from a Mission Home. (NAA A1/15 Item 12/9487) Darwin 8 April 1912 To the Chief Protector of Aboriginals Sir Attached for your information is a list of the children formerly at the Mission house conducted by Mr Barry together with information concerning their disposal. You will notice that all are in good hands and are well cared for. I have the honour to be Sir Yours faithfully J T Beckett Chief Inspector Boys Jimma Half Caste Cingulee, 8 years. Adopted by Mrs Penne, is well clothed and cared for and attends local State School regularly. [May be Mrs Ponne.] Albert 16 (full blood aboriginal) cared for same as Geo May, his half brother, and attends school. Ranji Half caste, 6 yrs, taken by his uncle W Allen, is well clothed and cared for and attends local State School regularly. Harry Hesselbein 9 yrs, half caste, taken by Mr N Holtze, is well clothed and cared for and attends school with Mr Holtze's children. Andy Hether Half caste, 19 yrs, earns own living in P R Allen's store and getting on well. Rupert Hill Half caste, 18 yrs, earns own living at Custom bond store and getting on well. Robert Full blood Aboriginal, 17 yrs, taken by Mr Stewart State School teacher. Fred Full blood Aboriginal, 16 yrs, taken by department as office boy. Girls Koby Shepherd Half caste European, 10 yrs. Bachie Shepherd Half caste European, 8 yrs. Both taken by Mrs (Capt) Edwards, are well clothed and cared for and attend State School regularly. Kitty Aboriginal full blood. Taken by Mrs J C Lewis who is training her in domestic duties. I have carefully questioned all these children and offered them the choice of returning to Mr Barry's Mission Home but all are well satisfied with the arrangements made for them by the department. J T Beckett Chief Inspector of Aborigines. Figure 5 Correspondence about two marriages in 1911 (NAA A1 Item 1912/3519) (1) Department of Aboriginal Affairs Office of the Chief Protector and Chief Medical Inspector Darwin, 11 August 1911 Forwarded through His Honor, the Acting Administrator The Honble The Minister of External Affairs Melbourne Sir I have the honor to forward, herewith the copy of a letter sent to Raymond Cavin of Darwin, granting him permission to marry the aboriginal woman 'Katy' of the Southport Tribe, who has been living with Raymond for several years under his care. The case was fully investigated prior to the granting of this permission. I have the honor to be Sir, Your obedient servant H Basedow Chief Protector and Chief Medical Inspector (2) Department of Aboriginal Affairs Office of the Chief Protector and Chief Medical Inspector Darwin, 11 August 1911 Raymond Cavin Cavanagh Street Darwin In reply to your communication dated July 31st I have to inform you that permission has been granted you to marry the Aboriginal woman 'Katy' of the Southport tribe, who is now living with you, under your protection. Please call at this office at an early date. H Basedow Chief Protector and Chief Medical Inspector (3) Department of Aboriginal Affairs Office of the Chief Protector and Chief Medical Inspector Darwin, 22 August 1911 Forwarded through His Honor, the Acting Administrator The Honble The Minister of External Affairs Melbourne Sir I have the honor to forward, herewith, the copy of a letter giving permission to Mr C J Williams of Melville Island to marry an aboriginal girl named 'Kitty'. The latter, it appears was responsible some time ago for the saving of Mr William's life. I have the honor to be Sir, Your obedient servant H Basedow Chief Protector and Chief Medical Inspector (4) Department of Aboriginal Affairs Office of the Chief Protector and Chief Medical Inspector Darwin, 22 August 1911 Mr C J Williams Melville Island Darwin Permission has been granted you to marry the aboriginal girl named 'Kitty' (Kula Maru) now living with you, under your protection at Cooper's Camp, Melville Island. You will please call at the Police Office at your earliest convenience and produce this letter. H Basedow Chief Protector and Chief Medical Inspector Figure 14 Correspondence about Douglas and Ooloo Stations 1950 (NAA F315 Item 49/393A) Letter dated 14 July 1950 Acting District Superintendent Douglas and Ooloo Stations, Daly River Douglas Station on Douglas River (Permanent running water), is 20 miles by road from the turnoff at the 115 miles on the bitumen, ie 135 miles by road from Darwin. The Douglas River is a tributary of the Daly River. Ooloo Station is situated on Ban Ban Lagoon, half a mile off the Daly River and 15 miles from Douglas Station. Mr Paddy Liddy (quadroon), son of Tom Liddy, owns and manages Douglas Station, his father, Tom Liddy, owns and manages Ooloo Station. Douglas Station has been moved from the old site at the junction of Hayes Creek with the Douglas River to a new site a few miles up the Douglas and Paddy Liddy is building a new station. Douglas Station was practically occupied by Defence personnel during the war. The two stations work together at present, the one mustering camp works both properties. I told Mr Liddy one employment return would serve the two stations. The station homestead at the Douglas is built of bush timber and corrugated iron and has a part cement and part ant- bed floor. Furniture was of the simplest kind but included a refrigerator. Other station buildings comprised meat house, harness room and a native kitchen off the harness room, all of bush timber framework. For water supply there is a hand pump from the river with a pipe reaching halfway to the house. There is no bath room at the house and no garden. The station buildings at ooloo Station on Ban Ban Lagoon comprised one bush timber framed homestead with cement floor and one sawn timber framed building, 3 feet off the ground with sawn timber flooring. Furniture was of the simplest but included a refrigerator and wireless. Water supply was by engine and pump from Ban Ban Lagoon to overhead tanks. Water is laid through the station. There is a bathroom and small vegetable garden. When I arrived at Douglas Station Paddy and Tom Liddy had not arrived back from a visit to Darwin and the station was out of beef and stores. Mrs Paddy Liddy (nee Ruby Stott) was at the station. Tom Liddy and Paddy Liddy arrived from Darwin the same evening, they brought a load of fuel but few stores apart from flour, tea and sugar. The Liddy's deal with Ah Toy of Pine Creek and the natives buy their goods there. A list of all aborigines on the two stations is attached to this report. The following part-aborigines are on the station :- Bob Cadell - born on Ooloo Station on 1st July 1932. Mother Ruby Jingala (Dilinara tribe) full blood aborigine, father European. He has made application for exemption. He is paid one pound per week in addition to food and clothing. Tom Liddy has agreed to raise his wages if his exemption is granted. He lives in the station homestead with Tom Liddy. Rankine 'Liddy' - born at Douglas Station on 1st July 1938. Mother Lulu Jagala (Nagaman tribe), full blood aborigine, father European. Billy 'Liddy' - born on Adelaide River near Humpty Doo Station on 1st July 1938. Mother Goyder Guda (Marananggu tribe) full blood aborigine, alleged father W Nokes European. Rankine and Billy attended school in Pine Creek for 12 months but as accomodation arrangements were not satisfactory they have not returned. Tom Liddy claims to have adopted Rankine and Billy although they are not his children and will arrange for their education. The Liddys had forwarded no employment returns and their records were very primitive. Paddy Liddy, who does the office work for the two stations, had a copy of the Pastoral Regulations obtained from the Pastoral Leases Association. I explained the sections of the Regulations to him. From his crude records and information he gave me I made out an employment return for Douglas and Ooloo Stations showing credits and debits for each native employee for the period 1st January 1950 to 30th June 1950, and made out an authorisation to cover clothing and cash given to his employees over thus period. I impressed on him that in future he must obtain an authorisation from an authorised protector before paying cash or issuing goods against the credits of his employees. Rations Rations issued to employees and dependents are mainly bread, beef, syrup, tea and sugar. Paddy and Tom Liddy apparently live largely on the same diet. Cows are milked in the wet season and early dry season, milk is available over this period. Accomodation for natives On Douglas Station there are two native huts, 20' x 12' and 12' x 12' and a native kitchen. The 20' x 12' hut is well ventilated and is a useful type of native hut. Frameworks are bush timber with antbed floor. Ooloo Station has three native cottages, 12' x 12' with verandah, bush timber framework and antbed floor. The native accomodation and rations are below the standard required by the Regulations but are in keeping with the employers accomodation and rations. As the employers improve their standards improvement will be expected in accomodation and rations for their employees. One family of eight children is eligible for child endowment. I obtained details for their claim. Mr Liddy informed me that his solicitor Mr J W Lyons would be entering a claim for child endowment for this family. G Sweeney Patrol Officer 14. 7.1950 Douglas and Ooloo Stations, Daly River Goyder Guda Marrananggu F 40y Cook Billy Nokes (now Liddy) M 12y H/C, son Luly (Lulu?) Jagala Wagaman F 30y Housegirl Rankine 'Liddy' M 12y H/C, son Maudie Nga-dja Wagaman F 70y Mother of Topsy Ngul-bandi Peter Gujada Wagaman M 45y Stockboy Dolly Gad-burr Wagaman F 40y Wife Teddy Boy Ga-rin-ba M 14y Son Don Bu-lam-bul M 12y Son Lena Ju-lu-luk F 11y Daughter Willie Gul-ma-jang-in M 8y Son Jessie I-bur-burin F 6y Daughter Doris Ma-gai-yan F 3y Daughter, twin Clara Gum-bit-bida F 3y Daughter, twin Peter Garrng-nei-i M 3m Son Maggie Nilyari F 60y (Mother of Lily, Lulu and Ruby.) Sambo Yu-bi-ran-ma Jamijung M 28y Stockboy Lily Bam-wulu F 22y Wife Tom Wyatt Jabada Wailbri M 35y Stockboy Ruby Jingaia Bilinara F 40y Wife Robert Cadell M 18y H/C, son Topsy Ngul-bandi Wagaman F 50y Housegirl (Husband Paddy Sammy is in the Leper Station, Darwin.) Other examples of the above type of report Henbury Station Figure 14 (cont) Further examples (NAA F315 Item 49/393A) Henbury Station Wages Head stockman, Sonny Swan, three-quarter white, three pounds ten shillings per week, graduating on a scale of proficiency and length of service to one pound per week. Food and clothing provided and dependents kept. House girls ten shillings per week with clothing and food provided. Half-Caste Out of 31 coloured people on the station only two are exempt, namely Gordon Abbott and Kenneth Swan. These were granted as a result of War Service. The remainder have been born and brought up on Henbury and are quite satisfied with their conditions. Some of the children have received education at Hermannsburg, but have not progressed very far. The overcrowding of Hostels in the Alice Springs area, prohibits the children from receiving schooling, so I would suggest that next year if the position has eased, some of the younger, near white kiddies could be brought in. Mr Pearce is giving all the youths a good training in stockwork, and is keen on educating the others. General Mr Pearce has a very sympathetic attitude towards his employees, and does his utmost to help in every way. While I was there an application was made to me by a coloured boy Jim Kernan to marry a coloured girl Vera Armstrong. I obtained the consent of the girl's father in writing. Mr Pearce is assisting his employee to make application for child endowment. Napperby Station Manager Bennett Webb is the manager but at the time of our visit he was not present, Mr W A Gibson being left in charge. Gibson is a white man legally married to Lucy (described as a half-caste but who, in my opinion, is at least three-quarter black). Half-castes There were no half-caste children on Napperby at the time of our visit. However, the two who were located there last year are still camping away from the station, their mother having apparently got wind of our intentions to move them. It will require a special patrol to apprehend then but, in view of the fact that the school year is now half-way through and that St Mary's Hostel is close to saturation point with the existing staff, I recommend that it be left until next January to send out and pick them up. There are two of them - one boy, Texas, aged approximately 7 years and whose father is alleged to be a Mr Dixon, and one girl, Lily, aged approximately 5 years and whose father is alleged to be Mick Kelly of Coniston Station. Their mother originally came from Gordon Downs. Figure 15 Example of Removal of part Aboriginal Children Taken from a Report by Patrol Officer E C Evans dated December 1949. Movement of Part-aboriginal Children Only five part-aboriginal children of those listed by you in your memorandum dated 26th August 1949 were removed by me. They were :- Dora, aged 9 yrs Rita, aged 8 yrs Captain, aged 7 yra Peggy, aged 7 yrs Florrie, aged 5 yrs (All fron Wave Hill) Of the others listed the position is as follows :- ex Willeroo Station - not visited. ex Delamere Station - not visited. Larry ex Timber Creek - Absent at the time of my visit. Constable Mettam promised to hold him id advised prior to my next visit. David ex Waterloo - Hidden by his mother who had received advice of my intentions from Wave Hill. She has promised to hand him over next year. Shanus ex Limbunya - Absent with his mother at Ord River Station. John ex Wave Hill - Deceased. My enquiries revealed that John died of pneumonia shortly after the visit of Patrol Officer Sweeny and myself in September 1947. Mary ex Wave Hill - Absent at the time of my visit. Alleged to be in the Pigeon Hole, Victoria River Downs area. Kim and Mitze ex Victoria River Downs - Removed by Constable Potts. Rosie ex Gordon Creek - not visited. Sandy and Ah Lai ex Pigeon Hole - not visited. The half-caste named Harold at Newry Station, who I was instructed to commit to the care of the Manager, is now an inmate of the Derby Leprosarium. Comment The removal of the children from Wave Hill by MacRobertson Miller aircraft was accompanied by distressing scenes the like of which I wish never to experience again. The engines of the 'plane are not stopped at Wave Hill and the noise combined with the strangeness of an aircraft only accentuated the grief and fear of the children, resulting in near-hysteria in two of them. I am quite convinced that news of my action at Wave Hill preceded me to the other stations resulting in the children being taken away prior to my arrival. I endeavoured to assuage the grief of the mothers by taking photographs of each of the children prior to their departure and these have been distributed among them. Also a dress length each was given the five mothers. Gifts of sweets to the children helped to break down a lot of their fear and I feel that removal by vehicle would have been effected without any fuss. Leprosy There are indications thet there is still at least on suspect case of leprosy at Waterloo and also one at Mistake Creek. Dr Black advised me, after we had left these stations, that he considered at least one native at each of these stations to be a leper. There were no obvious signs to my layman's eyes. There is, however, a young male native at Legune, Bob Koolimbin, whom the Manager considers might possibly be a suspect. His father died in the Derby Leprosarium and this may be influencing his judgement because there are as yet no obvious signs such as the thickening above and loss of the eyebrows, or discoloration of the skin. I will make a point of again examining this native when next I visit Legune. Figure 25 Census of Inmates and staff - Retta Dixon Home 16 April 1957 (NAA F1/0 1955/253) Group Boys Girls Total Wards Non-Wards Wards Non-Wards <= 5yrs 2 7 2 4 15 6-11 yrs 15 9 22 6 52 12-15 yrs 8 2 14 2 26 >15 yrs 2 1 3 Totals 27 18 39 12 96 Plus 5 women inmates, under the Ordinance 5 Total Inmates 101 Wards, Post School Elaine Kelly 14 yrs Assists duties in Home Joyce Croft 15 yrs Assists duties in Home Glenys Braun 14 yrs Assists duties in Home Vera Doran 16 yrs Casual day work at one pound per day. Four regular days per week. Samuel Fejo 15 yrs In Alice Springs Roger Roman 17 yrs In Alice Springs David Ross 14 yrs Assists in Home James Anderson 17 yrs Working at Hume Bros, Stuart Highway, Winnellie Will be 18 yrs old on 6 May 1957. Names of Children not Committed to the Home Glenys Braun Maralyn Braun Ralph (Stanley) Braun Anthonia Braun Ian Tilmouth Margaret Tilmouth Henry Crosbie Jock, Vincent Crosbie Josephine Crosbie (Under State Children's Council) Peggy Gallagher (Contribution made by father.) Tommy Allan Leslie Allan Marie Allan Fay Allan (Contribution made by father Jack Gallagher.) Peter Winsley Marie Holtze William Rotumah Peter Rotumah Joseph Rotumah (Supported by father Charlie Rotumah.) William Dempsey Dennis Dempsey Norman George Joan George Edward George (All supported by mother Mrs Norman George.) Allan Austral Marlene Hayes Nola Hayes Jennifer Hayes (Mother working on kitchen staff, cares for these 4 children.) McKenzie Croft Stanley Croft (Mother on laundry, cares for 2 boys.)