Patrol Report W MacDougall 18. 4.1953

Narional Archives of Australia Canberra Office A6456 R136/004 Native Affairs, Reports by Patrol Officers 1949 - 1955 Patrol Report W MacDougall 18. 4.1953 Detailed Survey of the Jangkuntjara Tribe Their Traditional Tribal Country and Ceremonial Grounds Superintendent 1. I commenced this patrol for the above purpose on 18 April 1953 and encountered several difficulties and set-backs, mainly at the beginning of the trip. 2. The main difficulty was due to lack of co-operation by the tribesmen. Whilst I have known most of these people for a long time, I have not had an opportunity to discuss with them their secret life, their relationships, their spiritual home country nor their water supplies or camping and hunting areas. 3. These people are reluctant to discuss such important aspects of their tribal life with just anybody and it was not until they fully realised that I knew most of their secretlife anyway and that I was not to be put off with any cock and bull story or half truths, that I was able to obtain the information that I required. I am afraid that I was led upon several wild goose chases at the beginning. 4. The normal difficulties of supplies and minor breakdowns, staked tyres etc were encountered, but the usual difficulty of water supply was non-existant as I travelled from soak to soak. I also visited several small rock holes, but they are no help to a white traveller as the water is foul and if you clean the rock hole, there is no water available until after the next rain. Fresh clean water is available an hour after cleaning a soak. 5. I commenced the patrol using a Morris Commercial 20 cwt Truck. Unfortunately this vehicle broke down seriously at Oolarinna. It was necessary for me to return to Woomera where I was supplied with a special Land Rover from X200. I then, accompanied by a mechanic from Woomera and with a complete rear axle assembly, returned to Oolarinna, repaired the Morris and sent it, driven by the mechanic, back to Mabel Creek and continued the patrol per Land Rover. The above occupied the period between 18 April and 29 May. 6. The Land Rover performed excellently, although I experienced some delays by minor break-downs, some of which were due to similar work which the vehicle had performed previously. Weaknesses which were not apparent in Workshops developed, such as cracked springs, also worn out oil seals etc. Such difficulties are to be expected in an old vehicle which has had several drivers. 7. The country traversed is mostly sand-hill country, covered with Mulga scrub. Good pastoral country was encountered from time to time in small valleys and some swamp country south of the Officer. Limestone out crops were a feature of this area. The sand-hills were covered with grass except where rabbits were numerous, other areas were covered with grass, salt bush, buck bush, parakylia and spinifex. Some of the soakages indicated the presence of a good supply of water. Considering the nature of the country, the Land Rover performed excellently. 8. The Jangkuntjara tribal country as shown on Tindale's map is an irregular area. The extreme South point is approx Latitude 28 deg 40 min, Northern point Latitude 24 deg 35 min, Western point Longitude 130 deg 15 min, Eastern point Longitude 133 deg 40 min. This territory is clearly marked on the map which I have called Appendix 'B'. I have marked the areas which they still use and also water supplies, camping areas and ceremonial grounds, particuarly those outside pastoral areas. The following cattle stations are situated in this area - Everard Park, Wallitinna and part of Granite Downs. Everard Park is owned by Messrs Josland & Ponder - James, Sandy and Bruce Ponder and David Josland. They employ one white man Mick Mitselberg as cook, gardener and general help, also a varying number of Jangkuntjara. There are 71 aborigines based on this Station, details are shown under Everard Park Appendix 'A'. Granite Downs is owned by J Davies Esq, who employs a Manager, Bookkeeper, Station Mechanic, Head Stockman and Foreman. A number of aborigines are employed, 67 making Granite Downs their headquarters. Details are shown under Granite Downs and New Lambinna, Appendix 'A'. There are two contractors working on Granite Downs, one fencing and one dam sinking, they employ 2 or 3 white men. Wallitinna is owned by Mr Tom Cullenan, he employs only aborigines. 34 live at the homestead, details shown under Wallitinna Appendix 'A'. Approx Station boundaries shown on map Appendix 'B'. NUMBERS 9. The total number of Jangkuntjara living in this area is 172, ie men, women and children. There are a few others, who years ago went to work on Stations East of their tribal lands and who have lost all interest in tribal matters, and who do not return for any purpose. I have not included them in the list attached as Appendix 'A'. NUMBERS USING AREAS OUTSIDE PASTORAL AREAS 10. Of the 172 listed, approximately 130 do periodically occupy some of the country outside pastoral areas. Owing to the growing tendency to depend on white man's food, the use of outside areas has been reduced to three months, August, September, October. This is the Dingo Pup season. Pups are easy to get and ensure large supplies of flour, tea, sugar, jam and milk. All ceremonies are now held at this time, because this food is available which relieves the necessity of vigorous hunting during the strenuous ceremonial activity. CEREMONIES 11. I believe there are only two types of ceremonies conducted now in the outside areas. Namely, Initiation and Red Ochre. The initiation ceremony is still of considerable importance to the men. Most of the boys and young men are keen to play their part, but a few try to avoid it. It is important in that the uninitiated man is despised and not allowed to participate in norman tribal life. He is not allowed to marry and this leads to endless trouble for themselves and others if he lives near to or amongst tribal natives. I have marked the route of the originators of this ceremony (Kangaroo, Uro and the Bird). No one knows where they come from, except that it was from the West, they travelled through the country initiated the first men and continued to the East, no one known where. 9. 12. The full significance of the Red Ochre ceremony is unknown to me, but part of it is law enforcement. During the ceremony a council decides who has committed crimes, gives penalties and appoints executioners who, in conjunction with the Warmulla (Invisible Avengers), must carry out the executions or else receive the same punishment. There is one Red Ochre or Warmulla ceremonial ground in the area surveyed South of Oolarinna. ACTUAL USE OF TRIBAL TERRITORY 13. Several of the hordes or family groups of the Jangkuntjara tribe have practically died out. About 30 members of Oolarinna sand-hill group died during the recent measles epidemic, leaving only one young man and three women. This, coupled with the advent of pastoral activity, has reduced the area used considerably. I have marked the area which they now claim as of importance and further marked the area which they actually use. It is difficult to get anything like accurate times and distances from aborigines, but I have definite proof that they have not used the extreme Western area for many years. They have difficulty in finding some of the soaks, which obviously have not been used for years. Other signs of recent occupation were conspicuous by their absence. The area above the parallel of latitude 26 degrees 40 minutes South has been gradually taken over by the Pitjantjara Tribe which is now based at Ernabella in the Musgrave Range. The area south of Pugla:nja is not now used. The area West of Munta Pulja is now not used. WATER SUPPLIES LOCATED 14. I have marked and named (name in use at present) soaks and rock holes located, and indicated which are used in August, September and October for hunting dingoes and ceremonies, which are camping areas and which are used only for immediate water needs and of which they are more or less afraid. EAST WEST LINE 15. One man travels reguarly once or twice a year from the Everard Range and Ooldea and returns by train to Oodnadatta. He is disliked by other aborigines and is at present banished from the Everard Range. He is suspected of having a wife and family at each place he visited, one at Everard, Ernabella and Ooldea. He has not travelled to Ooldea so far this year. CLAY PAN AREA 16. Whilst the Clay Pan area is in the traditional Jangkuntjara territory, those now living do not claim that portion as having any importance or significance. EXTENT AND TIME OF OCCUPATION 17. There are 130 Jangkuntjara who do use the area of their territory outside pastoral country, but only during August, September and October. The rest of the year is spent at one of the following stations, Everard Park, Granite Downs and Wallatinna. They may be found camped at or near any of the wells, soaks or rock holes situated on the above Stations, but are usually found close to the homestead, the Workers' camp, or the Government Ration Point. There are 22 water points not under constant control by Station personnel, or situated outside pastoral country, which the aborigines use for one purpose or another during August, September and October. They are as follows :- 1. Oolarinna Soak(1) 2. Oolarinna Soak(2) 3. Ammoroodinna Rock Hole 4. Puttla Soak 5. Pugla:nja Soak 6. Tjunpura Soak 7. Unparrina Soak 8. Unawina Soak 9. Tarplo Soak 10. Tjingla: Rock Hole 11. Wa:kalunja Rock Hole 12. Umpurka Soak 13. Karu Soak 14. Umbooroo Soak 15. Kata Pitera Soak 16. Oppera Soak 17. Kuna Jultu Rock Hole 18. Munta Pulja Soak 19. Untarltu Rock Hole 20. Wanparatjara Soak 21. Ulunga Soak 22. Tjuntjunta Soak There may be others which I did not locate in that area, but a line drawn through the following (as shown in Appendix 'B') is a definite limit to areas used now and for some years past :- 3. Ammoroodinna Rock Hole 4. Puttla Soak 5. Pugla:nja Soak 6. Tjunpura Soak 11. Wa:kalunja Rock Hole 12. Umpurka Soak 18. Munta Pulja Soak 19. Untarltu Rock Hole 22. Tjuntjunta Soak The water points north of these need not be mentioned. Other points outside the above area have not been used for several years and not likely to be used again unless interest is aroused by white men. Some that I visited are 23. Karmulja, 24. Poorala, 25. Untri:, 26. Kulata. With the exception of 23. Karmulja, the above are West of the track made by S/Ldr Garden's reconnaissance party in 1951. This track had not been seen by any of the Jangkuntjara and those to whom I showed it expressed great surprise, this proves that they had not been there for two years. The condition of the soaks also suggested that they have not been used for many years. SUMMARY 18. The tendency is for the Jangkuntjara to stay close to cattle properties where life is considerably easier. This is not so in August, September and October, when they spread over the country hunting dingo pups. They look upon this time as a harvest when all can have a super abundance of white men's food just by collecting dingo pup scalps. Station personnel encourage them. The Manager with the object of reducing dingo population, and some employees with a view to trading in scalps. 19. The area now used is not very great, and is of considerable distance from the Clay Pan area. 20 With the exception of one man there is no possibility of any of the Jangkuntjara travelling south of Pugla:nga unless interest is aroused by white men travelling in that direction for any purpose. Example, scouting for pastoral country, trapping dingoes. I would suggest the following mathod of ensuring that they do not enter the Clay Pan area :- By using their own beliefs and fears of evil spirits and invisible avengers, convince them that that area is no safe place for them. 21. I believe no action is really necessary other than to avoid arousing interest in that area, or making any reference to white man activity. As the horde which considered that area the homeland of the human spirits of their particular family group, has died out, there is no reason for men or women to occupy the area for the purpose of catching such a spirit and transmitting it to a new body in a form of a baby. 22. There are no men in that area to be initiated, therefore, no need for initiation ceremonies. No one lives in it, therefore, no need for increase ceremonies. The nearest family territory still occupied is Oolarinna. This extends south to Pugla:nja. There are 3 women and one young man who belong to this group. The women do not count as they are married to men in another group. The man will probably have male children, but it is doubtful if they will have any interest in their ancestral country. 23. A visit to Wallitinna, Oolarinna, Everard Park area would enable me to discover and check any tendency for them to move towards the prohibited or dangerous areas. 24. An astro fix at Pugla:nja would determine its exact distance from the Clay Pan if such accuracy is considered necessary. 25. I am not aware of any occupants of the Ngalea Tribal area. There are persistent rumours of aborigines occupying that area. I have not been able to contact anyone who has actually seen Natives there. I could secure information in regard to the above from the West Aust. Patrol Officer at Kalgoolie and Missions in the vicinity. W B MacDougall APPENDIX 1 Names of personnel of the Jangkuntjara Tribe Note As I have not known these people for very long, most of them refused to give me their native name and in a few cases where they have no English name they refused to give any name. I have listed them in groups according to the Station which they now use as a base and have sub-divided them into Workers, Pensioners and Unemployed. Everard Park Employed Charlie, Nelly, Kay, Molly 4 Tony, Munjinta (F), 2 children (1girl, 1 boy) 4 Jimmie, Molly - 1 child (boy) 3 Sam, Minnie - 1 child (girl) 3 William, Emily 2 Alex 1 Bruce 1 Ginger 1 David 1 Jim 1 Lame Fred 1 Murry, Tjinnikamila (F), 2 children 4 Munji (F), Lilly (daughter), 1 boy 3 Pensioners Kables (M) 1 Nelly and child Eileen 2 Everard (M), Mulunga (F), Susan (14 years) 3 Unemployed or Employed Casually Louie (M) 1 Ray and Mitchell 2 Pampey, Molly, 2 children 4 Lame Tom, Hughie & Kathleen 3 Jack, Ann, baby boy 3 Bob, Minnie, Andy 3 Maggie (M) 1 Little Kottich (M), Kunti Munju (F), 1 girl 3 Big Jack, Maggie - 2 children , Pony Pony - 3 children 8 Sam 1 Feathers 1 John 1 Peta 1 Sheila 1 Ann 1 Lilly 1 Minnie 1 Total 71 Granite Downs Employed Left Hand Tommie 1 Alan 1 Big Foot Billy 1 Curly 1 Windless 1 Lambina Mick 1 Tiger 1 Andy 1 Billy 1 Tommie 1 George 1 Oscar 1 3 men who would not give a name 3 Sailors Well Jack 1 Myall Billy 1 Pensioners or Those Receiving Government Rations Three fingers and wife 2 Algie 1 George 1 Molly 1 Mingie 1 Lilly 1 Kitty 1 Tommy 1 Eddie (wife of Big Foot Billy) 1 Sandy (wife of Alan) 1 Betty (wife of George) 1 Mary (wife of Curley) 1 NB The above are very old and not likely to go far from Homestead. Children Molly, 12 years (F) 1 Winger, 12 years (F) 1 Minnie, 10 years (F) 1 Nona, 10 years (F) 1 Three girls and a boy (Lambinna Mick's children) 4 Women and Children Wonga, Cheeky and Betty (F) 3 Jennie and child (House Woman) 2 Limpy Lilly and child 2 Little Betty and child (wife of Myall Billy) 2 Minnie and 2 children (wife of Tommie) 3 NB The above have no known actual father and are Wards of the State. Pensioners or Those Receiving Government Rations Jimmie Woodie (half-caste), Lilly and Eva 3 Crippled boy, 15 years 1 Girl, 14 years 1 3 Women and 5 Children 8 Very Old Men Sheepy Mick 1 Ada 1 Mulla 1 Boodla 1 Wallatinna Employed Barney, Cookie, baby 3 Kunji, Bingai, 3 children 5 Alex Woodie (half-caste), Mussikat, 3 children 5 Lilly 1 Rachael 1 Alex (Big), Lorna 2 Billy (half-caste) 1 Harry 1 Walker 1 Andy 1 2 without names 2 Pensioners Musitan and wife Jennie 2 Dick and wife Mary, 1 child Moses 3 Boko, boy of 16 1/2 years who has very bad eyes 1 Dick, Wirrika, 2 boys, 1 girl 5 Total 172