Report on the Borroloola Mining and Cattle Districts 1948

Narional Archives of Australia Darwin Office CRS F315/0 Item 1949/393A Part 2 Patrol Officers Reports - All Patrol Officers 1949 Report Relative to Mines and Cattle Stations Employing Native Labour in the Borroloola District (1) Manangoora Salt Pans (2) Seven Emus Station (3) Pungalina Station (4) Wollogorang Station (5) Seigal Creek Station (6) Redbank Copper Mine (7) Calvert Hill Station (8) Robinson River Station (9) Fulche River (10) MacArthur River Station (11) O.T. Downs (12) Tanunbirini Station (13) Nutwood Downs Station Copyright P J Mackett, 2005 Report Relative to Mines and Cattle Stations Employing Native Labour in the Borroloola District 16 December 1948 1. Manangoora Salt Pans Owner - Mr Andre Anderson, aged 62 years Wife - Violet Anderson F/B, aged 55 years Children - Andrew Anderson H/C, aged 14 years Alec Anderson H/C, aged 11 years The Manangoora Salt Pans are situated on the Wearyan River. At the time of my inspection on the 8th October 1948, Mr Anderson was living with a lubra named Violet. He stated he had been living with this lubra for the last 25 years and that the above two half-caste boys were his sons. On the 13th December, 1944, Mr White of this Department issued an authority granting Mr Anderson permission to marry the lubra Violet. When questioned as to why he had not fulfilled the above obligation he claimed he still had every intention of marrying Violet. I informed Mr Anderson that the Reverend Beckett was due to arrive in Borroloola on the 28th October, 1948. Mr Anderson was married on the 28th October, 1948, to Violet at Borroloola. The two half-caste sons are well victualled and clothed. There was a strong bond of affection between father and sons. Both boys are mustering cattle on a lease of country on the Fulche River recently taken up as a grazing licence by their father. He has made his will in their favour and in the event of his death, if permission is given for him to adopt his sons, they would inherit the salt pans. At the present time Alexandria Station in trying to enter into an agreement with Anderson for the export of his salt to the Tableland country. If this agreement comes into force Mr Anderson will be financially independent. The following natives of the Yanula tribe were employed by Mr Anderson to work his salt pans :- Relation Name Native Name Husband Sam Woondyuki Wife Maudy Moo-na Husband Silver Ongu-Willna Wife Fanny Yoo-na-mere Single Jackaman Willi-mere Single Toby Bin-goore Husband Willie Ack-na-mere Wife Ida Jilket Daughter Rosie The work these natives do consists of raking the salt from the flat ground of the salt pan and shovelling it into heaps. The salt is then sieved and bagged. No money is paid to the above employees but they are well clothed and victualled. In this area there were, at the time of my inspection, approximately 60 natives (living a nomadic life). They were camped on the opposite side of the Wearyan River to Mr Anderson's establishment. Unfortunately most of this group went bush the moment they knew the Police were at Marangoora (Constable Barrell who is Officer-in-Charge, Borroloola Police Station, accompanied me on patrol as far as Marangoora). I ascertained the following in- formation from an old lubra named Bundy, also from Mr Anderson. The group comprises two native tribes, Karara and Yanula. Of the 60 odd who had run away there were 8 aged and infirm, approximately 40 males over the age of 14 years and a total of 24 lubras of all ages. Mamangoora is an old established tribal ground and all the natives of the Borroloola district visit this country when on walkabout or holiday period. There is an abundance of native foods, ie, cycad palm nuts, yams, wallaby, unlimited supplies of fish, dugong, etc. In Constable Barrell's presence I questioned various natives as to why they were frightened of the police and they all stated that policemen before, evidently 8 to 10 years ago, had always taken young men away in handcuffs for no apparent reason. Mr Anderson claimed the Police took these boys away and forwarded them on to drovers or cattle stations on the Barkly Tablelands for work. It is quite definite that this practice has not been carried out for the last few years but the natives in the area are still very frightened of the Police. 2. Seven Emus Station Situated 5 miles east of the Robinson River. Ex-owner Mr Jack Keighran Present owner Mr Phil Hanlon Visited on 11th October 1948. Mr Keighran was at one time married to a lubra named Taylor. His wife has since died. He has three half-caste children. One, a lad of 12 years of age, is at present at the Methodist Boarding School, Thornburgh, Charters Towers, Queensland. The other two children are approximately 7 years and 5 years respectively, both boys. Mr Keighran showed me a letter from the Headmaster of Thornburgh which stated that his son was doing extremely well at school and also thanked Mr Keighran for the sum of approximately 1000 pounds placed at the headmaster's disposal for the education and schooling of his son in the future. Mr Keighran expressed the wish to me that he had intentions of sending his two junior sons to the same school in a few years' time. He stated that if possible he would send them to Burketown State School in the very near future. Mr Keighran had sold the Seven Emus Station late last year to Mr Phil Hanlon for the sum of 5000 pounds cash. Mr Hanlon shifted a mob of 1000 mixed cattle on to the Barkly Tablelands and sold them for 6 pounds a head to Vesteys. This sale took place a few months after the sale of the station had been finalised. Mr Hanlon's aboriginal licence number is 1326. The names of the natives he was employing are as follows :- Relation Name Native Name Husband Tom Dodd Wife Taylor Husband Tommy Wife Flora Husband Jingle Wife Nellie Son Killomet Husband Kurrabubba Wife Lily Children Phillip, Bill and Elsie Single Isaac Single Old Man Lovie Mt Hanlon does not pay wages to his native employees but clothes and victuals them and their dependents whilst they are working on his station. He stated that when he took boys on droving trips from the Seven Emus Station to the Barkly Tablelands he paid each boy one pound per week over and above clothing and victuall- ing. This money is usually spent at the Rankine River Store. There are approximately 40 natives in the Seven Emus area. Most of these were away on walkabout and were proceeding to Manangoora. Mr Keighran told us there were 8 aged and infirm natives in this area. Mr Hanlon's head stockman was one Arthur Aplin, an exempt half-caste 35 years of age. He worked on Wollogorang Station from 1927 to 1936. During these years of employment he was an apprentice stockman and later a stockman. The Manager of Wollogorang Station, Mr McLean, paid money to the credit of Arthur Aplin to the Aboriginals Trust Account between these dates but Aplin has never drawn any moneys whatsoever from the Aboriginals Trust Account. Aplin asked me if he could draw whatever amount was credited to him in the Trust Account. He has to his credit in the Trust Account the sum of 109/19/8 (Lsd). Arthur Aplin is single and a good type of man with a reputa- tionthroughout the district as far as Burketown as being an exceptionally good cattleman and a shrewd businessman. He has a Savings Bank Account and a credit of approximately 1000 pounds. He expressed to me his ambition was to own his own property. 3. Pungalina Station Situated on the Calvert River between Wollogorang Station, Calvert Hill Station and Seven Emus Station. Visited on the 14th October, 1948. Owner - Mr George Anderson Children - Morgan Anderson H/C, aged 20 years Hector Anderson H/C, aged 14 years Lila Anderson H/C, aged 18 years Ivy Anderson H/C, aged 4 years Mr Anderson had previously been living for 25 years with a lubra named Rosie but approximately 4 years ago she ran away with a male aborigine and is now residing at Doomadgee Mission, Queensland. Mr Anderson acknowledged all his family and stated that he had every intention of looking after them. His two boys had received schooling at the State School in Burketown. The girl Lila will be married in the near future to a half-caste Morlin Attenborough who is an exempt Queensland half-caste at present working for Mr Anderson. The entire Anderson family were well clothed and victualled. I informed Mr Anderson that this Depart- ment would write to him in the near future and advise him as regards his half-caste children. Mr Anderson had in his employ the following natives - Relation Name Native Name Husband Brownie Wife Mary Single boys Bob, Pyro, Rickett, Hooker I met Mr Anderson at a place called Camel Creek approximately 50 miles from Wollogorang. He was contract mustering for Mr Campbell of Wollogorang Station for 1000 head of mixed cattle, spayed cows and bullocks at 5/- per head for the first 500 and 7/6 per head for the second 500. The half-caste Morlin Attenborough was acting as head stock- man. All three boys, Attenborough, Morgan Anderson and Hector Anderson, were a good class of lad and were all recognised as smart stockmen. Mr Anderson did not pay his natives any wages but clothed and victualled them very well. At his homestead at Pungalina he had an exceptionally good vegetable and fruit garden. The homestead was a well built paper bark house. What yards I saw on the station were all in good order and strongly built. Mr Anderson stated that as he was no longer a young man he will, in the very near future, leave Pungalina to his sons and daughter and move into Burketown to live. His intentions are to acquire a small block of land around the BUrketown area. This will then enable his sons to shift bullocks from Pungalina as stores, hold them on the Burketown property, then sell them as fat bullocks. 4. Wollogorang Station Owner - Wollogorang Pastoral Co Manager - Mr Campbell Bookkeeper - Miss Vivian Campbell Situated approximately 180 miles NW from Burketown. Arrived 17th October 1948. Although Mr Campbell stressed that Wollogorang was a Company I have good reason to believe that in recent months Mr Campbell has brought the majority of the shares in the station. The area of Wollogorang Station is 2560 square miles. Of this 2029 square miles are in the Northern Territory, 535 square miles are in Queensland. The station homestead is quite a solid building, built after the Queensland style of country home. Mr Campbell was previously travelling Manager for Kidman Angas. He has a reputation as a very shrewd business man and cattle man. His one object on Wollogorang Station is to sell every procurable beast on the station and then sell the station. The only improvements that have ever been carried out on the station were running repairs to stockyards. This was necessary to enable him to continue his mustering. He told me that during the past three years he had shifted 18000 head of mixed cattle, spayed cows and bullocks. At the time of my inspection he had 3000 mixed cattle in a paddock close to the homestead. These he intended to shift when the first storms of the coming wet season fell. The market for his cattle in the past has been Augustus Downs Station and further cattle stations south in Queensland. In the past he informed me he had averaged 6 pounds per head per beast sold. One exempt half-caste, Jack Shadford, aged 60 years, is usually given the droving contract to shift the majority of Campbell's cattle. As Shadford is a very illiterate man I have no doubt that Campbell exploits him fully. The following are the particulars of Shadford. Jack Shadford, aged 60 years Violet Shadford, wife, aged 40 years May Shadford H/C, daughter, aged 20 years Maurice Shadford H/C, son, aged 18 years Eileen Shadford H/C, daughter, aged 16 years Angeline Shadford H/C, daughter, aged 12 years Phyllis Shadford H/C, daughter, aged 7 years When Shadford is droving his entire family move with the droving plant as a rule. The following personnel were employed as stockmen on Wollogorang Station - Half-castes Alex H/C, aged 17 years Oliver H/C, aged 14 years Aboriginals Banjo, single Echo and wife Minnie - children Eileen, Agnes and Jacob Bindie and wife Mary Masterton Jack and wife Fammy - son Johnson Roger, single Gregory and two wives Ruby and Annie - child Kathleen Single girls Nancy and Agnes Charlie and wife Mona Conditions of Employment Stock boys are clothed and victualled and their dependents are maintained. Clothing consists of an issue to each individual - Males - 1 shirt, 1 pr trousers, 1 towel, 1 mosquito net and 1 blanket. When boots are worn out they are replaced, 1 razor strop, 1 looking glass, leggings, spurs, tent fly, overcoat and an issue of tobacco of 1 1/4 lbs per month. The lubras are given calico for dresses. With regard to rations stock boys and working girls receive cooked meals prepared by the station cook and are as follows :- Cooked meat, bread, tea and sugar and on rare occasions jam or syrup. s The natives always complained they were hungry. I do not consider that sufficient meat and bread was given to them. The dependents receive a weekly supply of rations which consists of :- 6 lbs S.R. flour 1 lb sugar 2 oz tea 1 tin Jam or Syrup They are allowed to take what is left of the beast after the station has killed. This usually means they are allowed to take the intestines and head as very little else is left. In the way of clothing the dependents are given :- 1 blanket, 1 mosquito net and a tomahawk. Mr Campbell informed me that he paid all his stock boys 5/- per week. Payments were made monthly. However, when I questioned the boys they knew nothing whatsoever of payment of wages, audit was quite apparent they had never received wages. As Miss Campbell was a very efficient station bookkeeper and the station books were in perfect order, the fact that no records whatsoever were kept with regard to the payments for natives is proof that weekly payments of 5/- were never made. I informed Mr Campbell that books would have to be maintained for his aboriginal employees and that these books would be subject to inspection by visiting Police Officers and Patrol Officers. He assured me that in the future such books would be kept. No housing provisions were made. Mr Campbell said this was quite unnecessary as all his stockmen were issued with tent flies. This, in my opinion, was quite a good idea. The native camp was approximately 1/4 mile away from the station homestead and water had to be carried approximately 1/2 mile. There was no provision made for bathing, no showers, etc. The native employees were not allowed to take water from the bore or tank and had to carry thier water from a small well situated in the bed of a dry creek. Mr Campbell had no licence to employ aboriginals for this financial year and complained bitterly to me that he had sent a cheque by post under registered mail to the Protector of Aboriginals, Borroloola, Constable Johnston, last March. The number of the cheque was C.815485 for the amount of 6/10/6 (Lsd). This amount included payment for Registration of Firearms, Motor Vehicles, and Licence to employ Aboriginals. He has received no correspondence from Mr Johnston. Mr Campbell assuerd me he was writing to the Superintendent of Police with regard to this matter. His previous Aboriginal Licence Nos. for the year 1947 were No. 949 and 950. As Mr Campbell will have already shifted approximately 18000 head of cattle at 6 pounds per head during the last three years, the bulk of this work being done entirely by native labour, I consider that he should pay his native stock boys a minimum wage of at least 15/- to 1 pound a week; bathing facilities should be erected for his native personnel as there is no permanent water around the homestead area. As Wollogorang is on the Queensland border Mr Campbell is the only man in the whole of this area who can efficiently exploit natives. The remainder of the cattle stations near Wollogorang are in Queensland and as all the native stockmen employed on these stations come from Doomadgee Mission all moneys are paid direct to this Mission. This also includes stockboys employed in droving. The amounts are for 2/-/- to 2/10/- (Lsd) weekly to the credit of the native at the Mission. The Territory natives employed at Wollogorang are not allowed to be employed on the Queensland cattle stations. They will not leave Wollogorang because this particular area is their country and when on walkabout they proceed to Manangoora. There are approximately a total of 40 natives in the Wollogorang area and Redbank Mine area. Maurice Shadford works on Wollogorang Station while his father is waiting for delivery of a mob of cattle. The three half-castes, Maurice, Alex and Oliver are all classified as stockmen and carry out their duties as such. They work hard and long hours and no attempt has been made to educate them in any way. They live and eat in the native camp and in general are treated as an average aboriginal stockman. I can see no reason why Mr Campbell should not be able to employ these half-castes as apprentices and provide quarters and better class of food. Each boy should have a bank account and their weekly wages paid directly into same. I would recommend that the half-caste girls, Florine and Doreen be shifted from the area as it is quite apparent that nobody is looking after their interests. With regard to Mr Campbell if he is unwilling to improve conditions for the half- caste boys employed on his station I would recommend that the youngest boy, Oliver, be also removed. This boy could possibly be employed at Beswick Station. To remove these half-castes, in my opinion, it will be necessary to send an officer into Queensland per vehicle to Wollogorang Station via Camooweal. I cannot see how their removal would be effected successfully in any other way. 5. Seigal Creek Station Owner - William Norris Seigal Creek is situated approximately 43 miles South of Wollogorang Station on the Queensland border. On my arrival at Seigal Creek there was only one native at the station homestead. This native's name was Redbank. His lubra is at present receiving medical treatment at the Brisbane General Hospital. Mr Norris had left per horse plant three days previously for Burketown. On questioning the native Redbank it appeared that he was the only native employed on the station. 6. Redbank Copper Mine Owner - Mr W Masterton, aged 77 years Mr Masterton has been in this area since 1900 and has continually worked the copper mine throughout this period. He lives in a very primitive condition, his quarters being located in a cave. At the time of my inspection Mr Masterton had no natives in his employ. His last aboriginal licence was held in 1945. He stated he had not worked any natives since that date. Mr Masterton's copper mine has been inspected by engineers and assayists from the Zinc Corporation, Broken Hill. He told me that they had reported that there was insufficient ore in the area to warrant a large company taking control and erecting a smelter. There is no doubt that the Redbank mine could be a success- ful one now if the owner had sufficient capital to become modern- istic, ie, own a motor truck, pump for sluices, etc. The isolation of the mine is the greatest handicap to overcome especially as all the ore has to be shipped to Newcastle, NSW. Living near Masterton were the following natives :- Relation Name Native Name Husband Old Tommy Yed-ud-era Wife Judy Kak-a-la Wife Bella Oong-oona-mura Living with Mr Masterton in a cave adjoining his was a young half-caste girl named Florine. This girl's age was 16 years, her mother was the above lubra, Bella. As far as could be ascertained her father's name was Mr Holmes, address unknown. Masterton stated that he had taken this half-caste girl from the native camp at an early age and had looked after her interests ever since. He had given her a little education, clothed and fed her. He requested that I remove the girl as the residents of the various stations and people in Burketown claimed that he was living with the girl. I assured Mr Masterton that the girl would be removed in the very near future but it was quite impossible for me to take her with me on patrol as I had over 200 miles to ride to Borroloola. I questioned Masterton with regard to various rumours I had heard with reference to the girl Florina working underground. in one of the mines. He admitted that she had been underground but claimed she had only gone down for the adventure and unknown to him at the time. He stated that he had reprimanded her for doing this and claimed that the community was only trying to give him a bad time. I am quite convinced that in the past Masterton has acted in the best interests of the girl. Also in the Redbank area were the following natives :- Relation Name Native Name Husband Charlie Yal-ar-al Three wives Maudie Pumyal-border Mollie Jaya-lla-bina Violet Kydee-bba Daughter Maggie Mun-galli The following half-castes were living in an iron shack known as Shadford's camp. This house is owned by Jack Shadford. May Shadford H/C, aged 20 years Phyllis Shadford H/C, aged 7 years May Shadford had a daughter Doreen aged 7 years, also a daughter 4 weeks old, both quarter-caste children. The father of the second daughter is unknown. The name of the father of Doreen was alleged to be a stockman by the name of Billy Cain whose present address is Stapleton Station. Billy Cain has not a good reputation, he was arrested and charged with cohabiting, found guilty and served six months in Alice Springs Gaol. I consider that Cain should be approached and questioned as to whether he is the father of Doreen. As he has already served a sentence for cohabiting there is the possibility he may admit to being the father. In the event of this happening he could then be made to pay an amount each week for the upkeep of the child. The Shadford girls were living on rations that their father had sent up from Wollogorang Station. 7. Calvert Hill Station Owners - McIntosh and Clark At the time of my inspection it was managed by Mr B Booth. Calvert Hill Station is situated five miles west of the Calvert River, approximately 80 miles from Wollogorang. The homestead consists of paper bark houses which are in a very bad state of repair. CAlvert Hills Station is recognised as good cattle country and in the past has produced good bullocks. They usually shift approximately 400 to 500 head a year. No station work was being performed at the time of my inspection as Mr Booth was only a relieving manager while the owners were trying to locate a more suitable and younger man. The following natives of the Gurawa tribe were employed at the Station. These were the only natives in the area - Husband Dick Cowder-Lowie Wife Jinny Crown-Ellia Widow Lena Daughters Cissy and Kathleen Two boys Roy and Don Husband Watermelon Billy Ginginnarie Lubra Topsy Urow-Nowji The natives lived on the banks of a billabong in paper bark humpies. They were well-clothed and victualled. Mr Booth had no licence to employ aboriginals. The address of one of the owners is Mr McIntosh, Victoria Street, Clayfield, Brisbane. 8. Robinson River Station Owner - Mr Archie McIntyre Situated 100 miles east of Borroloola. Arrived 3rd November 1948. On my arrival at Robinson River Station Mrs McIntyre informed me that her husband was in Borroloola with a plant of 19 pack horses getting the wet season supplies. Some of the station employed natives were away on 'holiday period'. The following natives are employed by Mr McIntyre - Husband Wife Children Davey Maudie William (6 years) Roary Lena Don (15 years) Gilbert (14 years) Hilda (13 years) Lena (12 years) Doreen (10 years) Morgan (9 years) Clown (5 years) Dulcey (2 years) Bill Elma No children Old Roary Bessie No children Davey Deceased Morris and Athol (twins, 10 years of age) Billie (single boy) Curley (single boy) The above natives were well victualled and clothed. They were paid no wages but appeared to be happy and contented. It would appear that in recent years that Mr McIntyre has lost all interest in the station as very little work has been done. The majority of the cattle on this run are 'clean-skins'. There are approximately a total of 30 natives in this area. Of this number three (3) are aged and infirm. 9. Fulche River Owner - George Butcher Situated approximately 68 miles south-east of Borroloola. Arrived 5th November, 1948. I located Mr Butcher close to the Robinson River approximate- ly 50 miles north of the Robinson River Station. At the time of my inspection he was mustering and had in his camp the following natives - Husband Wife Children Blue Bob Mary No children Diamond Emilina Peggy (4 years) half-caste Violet (3 years) full-blood Baby boy (1 year) half-caste Noble Rita No children Lurich China No children Aged and infirm natives Billy Nuggett Tommy (2 wives) Ruby and Queenie The above natives were well clothed and victualled. I questioned Mr Butcher as to who was the father of the two half- caste children in his camp. He stated that he did not know. The lubra had come from Borroloola early in the year and he had employed her consort as stockboy and clothed and maintained the family. 10. MacArthur River Station Estate of W Norton. Manager - Mr Fred Ellis (60 years of age) Head Stockman - Mr Ray Thompson (30 years of age) Aboriginal Licence Nos. 1333 and 1335 respectively Situated half a mile east of the main Anthony's Lagoon - Borroloola Road approximately 60 miles South of Borroloola. Arrived 21st November, 1948. The following stations belong to the estate of W Norton - Creswell Downs MacArthur River Tanunbirini These stations are all controlled by the Senior Manager, Mr George Ellis of Creswell Downs. The homestead at MacArthur River was in a very sad state of repair. Mr Ellis informed me that new buildings were on order down south and it was only a matter of waiting for them to be shipped to Borroloola. I am of the opinion that very little stock work has been carried out on this station over the last two years as apparently most of the stockboys spend the greater portion of their time helping Mr Ellis to poison dingoes. The following natives were at the station on my arrival. They lived in paper-bark huts approximately a quarter of a mile away from the homestead close to the river bank. They were all well clothed and victualled and apparently did little work other tan kill once a week and scalp dingoes. This group of natives were very happy and contented. No wages were paid to any of the native employees. Attached is a list of the natives at present on the MacArthur River Station. The majority of the natives belonged to the Yanula tribe. Natives Employed at MacArthur River Station - as at 21st November 1948 Married Husband Native Name Wife Native Name Children Fred Manargue Maggie Winoryuki Nil Rivett Wirnorju Nancy Wirginala Sweeney and Margaret Sam Mimdorguna Judy Jimmordinga Nil Willie Mar-ar-ga-li Liddy Wirar-du Phyllis Tommy Tylar-aur Deana Gor-an-or Nil Lancon Mor-don-guna Eileen (1) Dug-alai Harry and Jack Mavis (2) Woor-ungah Nil Rankine Moor-ad-igali Ludie (1) Mor-gud-ina Nil Tansey (2) Mom-ba-dooma Nil Diamond Gul-goomara --------- Willin-boona Nil John Win-dag-um-brina Elsey Blin-am-ura Henry, Bill, May and Roy Bruce Munada Jamina Guoy-marlu Nil Kingsley Goon-di-kuri Maggie Yuron-juri Nil Single Men Pharoh Nara-loo (single boy) Jim Wir-yumba (single boy) Napper Jell-berry (single boy) Sidney Jor-gornee (single boy) Single Girls Maudie Lim-burru Alice Nimm-im-buna Unemployed Sidney Kin-djn-jarra Kathleen (1) Mar-in-buna Angelene Rosslyn (2) Mon-gar-lina Dick Tam-ar-inga Eileen Nary-inja Nil Aged and Infirm Old Bob Jun-or-uru Sambo Milin-di Kitty Ormm-garru Tommy -------- Rosie Mun-gorlu ------- Un-gum-mali (old Woman) Toolinbuck Nar-an-bu (old man) ------- Jur-a-medu (old woman) ------- Mun-ar-lee (old woman) ------- Mud-jim-marri (old woman) As far as I could ascertain there were approximately twenty (20) other natives in this area whom I did not see. This completed the total of all natives in the MacArthur River area. 11. O.T. Downs Arrived 22nd November, 1948. O.T. Downs and Beetaloo Station belong to a group of half-castes. Both these stations are under the trusteeship of Bagots Estates (Goldsborough Mort, Adelaide - Agents). The following are the names of the half-castes who have shares in the stations - Hugh Bathern Wattie Bathern Duncan Bathern Peter Bostock Fanny Bostock Billy Miller A European by the name of Mr Tiernan, who lives at Beetaloo Station, acts as Manager and Bookkeeper for both stations. On my arrival at O.T. Downs Billy Miller and Hugh Bathern were the only two of the above half-castes living on the station. The native stockmen and families lived near a waterhole approximately a quarter of a mile from the homestead. The homestead consisted of four Sidney William huts. They were well clothed and victualled. The following are the names of all the natives on the station at the time of my inspection - Jingla Tribe Husband Wife Children Talbot Lucy Bruce, Leo Tom Juliet Rosie Yanda Nellie Nil Frank Liddy Nil Nipper Sarah Nil Wallace Doreen Nil Barney (single boy) Amellie (single girl) No wages were paid to any of the native employees. 12. Tanunbirini Station Estate of W Norton Manager - Mr Les Ellis (half-caste son of George Ellis of Creswell Downs) Arrived 23rd November, 1948. Mr Les Ellis was educated in Alice Springs, is twenty- four years of age and appears to be a good type of man. At the time of my inspection he was trapping brumbies approximately ten (10) miles from the homestead. He had in his camp the following natives of the Allowia tribe :- Husband Wife Children Percy H/C (single boy, 21 years) Don Harriet Nil Bruce Minnie Nil Jimmie Clara Nil Dashwood Ethel Jack H/C, 1 year old Roger Rita Kathleen (17 years) Bobby Lena Nil Owen Ida Nil John (single boy) Whylo (single boy) Nipper (single boy) Old Ted (single boy) Old Friday (single boy) Old Grannie (single boy) All the above natives are well victualled and clothed. Mr Les Ellis could give me no information with regard to Ethel's half-caste child. Tanunbirini homestead consisted of two galvanised iron buildings. This station is really an outstation of MacArthur River. 13. Nutwood Downs Station Owney - Vesteys Manager - Mr James Hood Bookkeeper - Head Stockman - Raymond Hood Arrived 24th November, 1948. Numbers of Aboriginal Licences - James Hood 1959 Mrs Hood 1960 Raymond Hood 1961 George Man Fong 1962 The native camp at Nutwood station is located on a stoney ridge approximately 300 or 400 yards from the station homestead. As yet no buildings have been erected for the stockboys and their dependents. No provision for bathing or sanitation had yet been made. However, all the native stockboys and their dependents were well clothed and well victualled. At the time of my inspection these stockboys were not receiving any cash payments but Mr Hood informed me that he hoped to pay all the stockboys and working girls a minimum wage of one pound per week within a matter of weeks. This amount will be over and above their present working conditions. The following is an extract from the station books of rations supplied to aboriginal dependents for the month of September, 1948 - 8 bags of flour 120 lbs sugar 10 lbs octorize 5 lbs carb soda 5 lbs tobacco 14 dresses 10 lbs tea 4 pkts safety matches 10 tins treacle Total cost 25/5/3 (Lsd) The following is an extract from the station books of rations supplied to working boys on 'holiday period'. 9 bags flour 119 lbs sugar 6 lbs octorize 5 lbs carb soda 4 lbs tobacco 10 lbs tea 6 pkts matches 12 tins treacle Total cost 15/12/9 (Lsd) Attached hereto is a list of all natives at Nutwood Downs Station as at 24th November, 1948. Natives Employed at Nutwood Downs Station - as at 24th November 1948 Husband Native Name Wife Native Name Children Hodgson Jat-mad-gee Hagar Goal-ina John, Isaac, baby Walker Gor-loo-yakie (single boy) August ------ (single boy) Tido Burr-um (single boy) Billy Nar-ra-oo-lamd-gee Ruby Oop-in-ger Nil Harry Gun-di-yarr-ree Amy Billi-billi Nil Paddy Nar-lee-yee Gladys Be-bee-jack-ery Nil Stevens Nar-nee-maeh (single boy) Nipper Win-dac-oo-loo Fanny Min-yee Nil Old Nipper ------ Charlie Jar-lning Nancy Wirr-aoa-lyekah Tony, Margaret Norman Woll-oow-ooloo Priscilla Yin-bee Nil Dick Dog-mug (single boy) Albert ? (single boy) Tommy ? (single boy) Hodgson boy ? (single boy) Charlie Wim-im-inar (single boy) Bun Will-warr-ara Rita Dar-al-ol Tiny, Julie Frank ? (single boy) Minnemere Reetch-awoorool Rachel Moon-onn-beema Waratah, Georgina Gilbert ? (single boy) Tonson boy ? (single boy) Robin boy ? (single boy) Johnnie ? (single boy) Tavloo ? (single boy) Billy Fulton H/C (single boy) Kelley ? Bessie ? Adric ? Bluebell ? Aged and Infirm Frank ? Lucy ? Kitty ? Lizzie ? Norah ? S H Kyle-Little Patrol Officer 16.12.1948