Report on Fieldwork west of Papunya June/July 1962

National Archives of Australia CRS F1/0 Item 1962/1843 Report on Fieldwork west of Papunya June/July 1962 by Jeremy Long (1) Report on Preliminary Patrol West of Papunya (June 11 - 17) (2) General Report on Field Trips West of Papunya (June 23 - July 21) (3) Fieldwork west of Papunya June/July 1962 Report on Preliminary Patrol West of Papunya (June 11 - 17) Papunya 18 June 1962 1. Journal - Monday 11 June : Left Papunya after 11am with Landrover and Volkswagen and camped by the road near Ilbili at dark after filling 44 gall. drum with water at Warren Creek bore (52 miles). Road to Liebig is poor but beyond it is good apart from a few washaways. Left water drum and some petrol here. (110 miles) Tuesday 12 : Drove through Sandy Blight Junction to a dinner camp at the WA border (85 miles; 195 from Papunya). Near TJITURUBA two boys stopped the Landrover and both vehicles were taken in to a camp a little North of the road. There were 16 people here, including a man and two youths who moved from Mt Webb soon after us. Road to Sandy Blight proved rather better than on previous trips but near the border it is washed out in places (104 miles). Wednesday 13 : Left 44 galls fuel and continued West past Mt Webb to a soakage where two other families were to be camped but there was no water here and the people had moved North. Continued West over a generally fair road through Pollock Hills and into sandhill country to the North West. (124 miles). Thursday 14 : Drove to the end of the WRE road and found Jupiter Well, sunk last year by National Mapping party and in good order (378 miles from Papunya). A group of at least 14 people had left there a few hours before for another water to the South West. An effort was made to follow them up, because the mapping party's tracks headed northerly and difficulty was found in taking the trailer through the sandhills, this was abandoned. Returned East some distance before camping, after leaving a drum with 30 galls. fuel at the well. (105 miles). Friday 15 : Returned to the Dovers Hills and camped with the first group of natives near MANDADI. They had not been joined by others (110 miles). Saturday 16 : Returned East to Ilbili, taking two men and a youth to visit relatives at Papunya and be returned next week. Collected fuel remaining from the 1957 patrol and inspected a few miles of country on the western side of the Ehrenberg Ranges. Camped after dark near Salvation Hill. (141 miles). Sunday 17 : Returned to Papunya (100 miles). The total distance recorded on the Landrover speedometer was 801.9 miles. The road is quite good though overgrown so that washaways and antbeds are a problem. The Volkswagen had to be pushed through one creek on the way out and over one sandhill on the return journey. There are drums of fuel and / or water left by the National Mapping parties at 50 / 60 mile intervals West of Sandy Blight. Water will be no problem for several months at least because rain has been general. 2. General Observations : Most of the people from North and West of Mt Webb are said to have gone to Balgo Mission just as most of those from East of there have come in to Papunya. Apart from the people who were seen or whose tracks were seen, there were groups reported to be West of the southern end of Lake Macdonald and one family said to be still in the Lake Hazlett (Labi-Labi) area to the North. Goannas and a variety of seeds are now providing the staple diet for the people who seemed to be in quite good health apart from winter colds and one small girl with yaws who will be treated next week. These groups near the road have all had some contact with the road-making (1960) and mapping (1961) parties and some more might soon have attempted the long walk around North of Lake Mackay to Mt Doreen (a route that is known) in order to join relatives and obtain flour, tea & sugar, etc.. The waters East to Mt Liebig and Papunya are not known to them and this has prevented their coming to Papunya before. The chances are that even if relatives do not go out from here with camels some will walk in if left to their own devices in the next few months. 3. Plans : I intend leaving again about 24 June for ten days or so during which time I will revisit the first group and try to locate any groups to the South west. If time permits I will make a third trip to find the group near the end of the road. The 'Pintubi country' proper seems to end about the Pollock Hills but on future trips I hope to establish more precisely some of the limits of the territory inhabited by these people. Most of the people met with so far have been checked against the lists I compiled at Haast Bluff in 1957 but there remain more that 20 adult males and their families to be accounted for, apart from those recently deceased. I hope to gather more info- mation about the waters, population distribution and local organisation, and the age structure of the population on these further visits. J P M Long Research Officer ___________________________________________________________________________ General Report on Field Trips West of Papunya (June 23 - July 21) Welfare Branch Papunya 25 July 1962 I. Journal (a) Trip to North-west of Papunya (June 23-27) : The aim of this journey was to locate waters in the borderlands between the Pintubi and Ngalia country from which areas a number of Papunya people come. Drove North from Alumbara Bore through sandhills, West through country South of the salt lakes and North on a station road past Lake Eaton to Newhaven and Gurner stations; thence West to Mt Stanley (Karku) and South-west to Dry Bluff (Tjigari), returning by way of Mt Carey (Lunggada rockhole) and Kunadjarai to Mt Doreen, Yuendumu and (by way of the incomplete new track, 72 miles) to Papunya. Total distance - 424.6 miles. A bog in the lake country and staked tyres in the dense mulga between Kunadjarai and Vaughan Springs caused delays. The route through the Lake Mackay Reserve ran mainly over spinifex plains but from a few miles South of Kunadjarai to the Mt Doreen boundary there was first class pastoral country, which extends West and North to Ethel Creek and Mt Farewell - probably some 700 / 800 square miles in all. The evacuation of these areas began in the early 1930's and they have probably been little visited by natives since the early 40's. (b) Trip to Cleland Hills (June 29 - July 1) : The aim was to identify two large watercourses lying in the territory of the original inhabitants of the Haast Bluff country (Kukatja). From Mt Liebig drove to Putadi spring and Southwest past Mt Udor (Parana) to Thomas Reservoir (Alala) and South east from there to Murundji, South along the hills to Puridjara and West to Gill's Creek (Kaltara). Returned on a track made in 1958 across Deering Creek to Tarawara bore, Haast Bluff and Papunya. Alala had evidently had little rain but held some thousands of gallons and Murundjim a larger and more sheltered hole was full. There are a number of rock paintings in the area, notably in a large cave South of Murundji. (c) Dovers Hills and Sandhill Country Southwest (July 2 - 10) : The group met on the preliminary trip were found camped at Tjituruba, the main water in Dovers Hills but moved the same day to Ladjurnga rockhole where a base camp was established. Because the radio was not trans- mitting I decided to go South to locate Macdougal who was working in the Giles area. We met north of Sir Frederick Range on 5th July and returned to base camp. Next day we started together for the Southwest to meet a group which had recently sent two young men up to arrange an initiation gathering. Camped the first night at Parpunga a large rockhole in an area which had evidently had little rain: a small supply was found after digging. Continued South of West into confused sandhill country and in the evening met an old man and his young son, having seen several smokes during the day. An axle broke on Macdougal's International that afternoon and the going was very difficult next day again as we started South towards the old man's camp. At noon a couple with a baby came into our dinner camp and, leaving the old man to go on and collect two women and another son, we drove North to a soak where another couple with two children was camped. The group had split up not long before and half had gone further south. The two messengers had evidently gone to these groups. Macdougal started back next morning while I awaited the expected return of the old man but left after dinner when it was evident that he was not coming immediately. Camped with Macdougal, who had had steering and tyre trouble, at 4pm and camped near some low hills. Detoured next morning to visit Aranga soak (where I had met a group in 1957) and returned to base camp. Details of the people not actually seen were collected and a number of waters located approximately. Two of the men seen had visited Warburton Mission and one or two had been to Giles. (d) Bonython Hills (July 11 - 14) : The aim was to find accessible waters where the Woomera patrol officers could make contact with the southern (sandhill) group on future visits. Drove to Mt Leisler on July 11th and next day followed a National Mapping track towards Bonython Hills (Tjilkagura), leaving it to go around the North side of the hills and camp in sandhill country to the West. Next morning located Walukuridja rockholes and returned to the Hills where Macdougal went Northabout to meet P/Os Hunter and Lennard and I followed the Mapping party's tracks South of the Hills and back to the meeting point for a late lunch. Drove together back to the Giles road South of Davenport Hills and camped. Next morning Macdougal returned to Giles and we to the base camp. Distance 310.5 miles. (e) Jupiter Well and the Canning Stock Route (July 15 - 21) : After effecting repairs to radio and adjustments to springs Hunter and Lennard left to continue their station patrol. Moved the base camp to Mandadi, a rockhole a few miles South where we had camped on the preliminary trip, and started West. Camped in Pollock Hills. Reached Jupiter Well (Djundumarpa) next day at midday. One family had revisited the well since out first visit and the bucket left there had disappeared but rain had obscured their tracks and prevented identification. Later in the afternoon started West on Mapping tracks towards the Canning. Came on fresh tracks 8 miles out but continued along the track after making a smoke, trusting that the group would go in to the well. The Track headed North of West and we soon left the country known to our guide. Camped 34 miles out. Continued North and West next day over rolling spinifex-covered gravel downs, that are almost treeless, and through some belts of sandhills to No 35 Well on the Stockroute where we camped and replenished the water tank with excellent water from the well. Next day returned the 130 miles to Jupiter Well arriving at 10.30pm after a slow trip because of damaged springs. There had been no visitors to the people left at the well and because rations were short and both rear springs had broken leaves we started East next morning after gathering names of some of the men known to be living in the country to the South and West. Camped at Pollock Hills and the following day returned to base camp for lunch. Delayed by rain and waiting for members of the party to return from hunting, we camped at the eastern end of the Dovers Hills. The 29 remaining in the camp, after I had picked up one family so that the boy's burns could be treated at Papunya, started moving East that afternoon and camped at Tjituruba. Next day we returned to Papunya. II. Comment The main purpose of the journey was to gather information about the Pintubi country and their manner of life and this material will be presented later together with detailed maps and census lists. It would be useful next winter to make two further trips to fill in gaps in the information : (a) to travel West from Lake Macdonald through the sandhill country about 170 miles and (b) to go North from the Lake Mackay tracks to Balgo Hills Mission and South to the road near Pollock Hills. Population : The two groups that were contacted number about 60 though not all were seen : Adults Children Total Dovers / Angas Hills 17 11 28 Sandhills 18 16 34 In addition there were 13 adults and 3 children identified and named from tracks seen at Jupiter Well and names of another 13 adult males, most of whom probably have families, were recorded as living in the country Southwest of there. These last are a mixed group of Pintubi and Putidjara people. One man of the Jupiter Well group has worked as a stockman somewhere in W.A. and I assume that the groups have had some slight contact with Warburton or with Mission natives. The balance of the Northern and Western Pintubi have moved up to Balgo Hills or to stations, as have their Western (Pitungu) and Northern (Yumu) neighbours, the latter deriving from the Lake Mackay / Lake Hazlett area. (The people met on the Lake Mackay patrols 1957 and 1960, who are now mainly at Yuendumu, derive from the areas seen on these trips and had probably moved North as a result of the major emigrations to Balgo Hills.) Health : The Dovers Hills group looked to be in good fettle and have been getting a good supply of seed foods and lizards. Kangaroo and Euro are as plentiful in the areas as they probably would ever be but until rifles came they were presumably a rare item of diet. One small girl with yaws was given one penicillin injection which cleared up a large and troublesome sore on her neck but there was some resistance to completing the treatment and the issue was not pressed. One boy was lame as a result of burns. One elderly man had died recently and another and presumably his son had perished during last summer. The group in the sandhills whose present staples appeared to be lizards and feral cats were in less good condition perhaps but by no means unhealthy. Movements : Tentative arrangements were made with the two groups by Mr Macdougal for visits in future to places near Dovers Hills and Bonython Hills respectively, though it is expected that the two groups will be united soon for initiation ceremonies. The group had however started for Ilgalidja rockhole, West of Mt Strickland, when we left and intended moving on after that to Kumanadja (formerly Willi) between Mt Strickland and Ilbilli and thence, one assumes, Papunya. This may mean that the whole area will be depopulated in the next few months and these 60 odd people added to Papunya's 600 before the summer. It seems that the desire to see their relatives here will overcome any reluctance to leave their country, even though the WRE officers provide opportunities for them to obtain some flour, tea and sugar. I will make some proposals for meeting this situation in a separate submission. The disadvantages of such a migration are obvious enough but more of them will no doubt live longer and possibly healthier lives than formerly. In addition the population out there has been so much reduced that inbreeding is occurring (there were three instances of first cousin marriage recorded, two as a direct result of recent immigrations to Papunya of eligible males) and general social intercourse had become very restricted (this may be a reason for the failure to initiate two youths of 15 / 17 seen at Dovers Hills). The country from Mt Liebig to the WA border is excellent condition and there is plenty of game so that the group should experience little hardship in moving in. J P M Long Research Officer _______________________________________________________________________________ Fieldwork west of Papunya June/July 1962 10th August 1962 Assistant Director I submit for your information these notes on the main lines of enquiry and my findings on my recent field trip. I have already reported on aspects relat- ing to future plans for the development of the reserve and the welfare of the inhabitants. Census lists have been placed on this file and copies will be sent for the use of the Superintendent, Papunya, and the WRE officers. 2. 'Tribal Areas' of the Pintubi: A main object of the field trips was to locate the areas inhabited by Pintubi now at Yuendumu and Papunya or still in the desert. A great many waterholes were located precisely or approx- imately and this knowledge was useful in identifying the 'country' of virtually all the Pintubi at settlements or in the bush. Similar work was done with the Ngalia and Kukatja inhabitants of Papunya. Since the named groups of these western desert people are generally identified by dialect pecularities some necessarily superficial enquiry was made into language. Some interesting results of this work were : (a) the people who are called and call themselves Pintubi at Papunya have (at least) two distinct dialects. A southern group from the sandhill country west of Lake MacDonald across towards Mt Rennie and Ilbilli and south towards Lake Hopkins is sometimes called WINANBA. Many of the earlier 'Pintubi' migrants, such as Nosepeg, speak (spoke) this dialect. These people have close ties with the Rawlinson people (NGADADJARDA) whom they refer to as PATUTA, and in fact some were, and are, living near Giles. They have ties also with their south-eastern neigh- bours whom they call NANGATJA or PITJA-PITJA and who now live at Areyonga (where they are called PITJANTJARA). But with the PINTUBI to the North and the KUKATJA (sometimes MAYULA- DJARA) to the East they were most closely linked. (b) The groups seen on the 1957 Lake Mackay patrol, and subsequently, who are now mainly at Yuendumu, belong to the PINTUBI groups and were then liv- ing out of their 'tribal country'. The northern neighbours of the Pintubi are called YUMU and (perhaps to the North-East towards Mt Singleton) WARINGARI and are said to have gone, with many of the Pintubi, to Balgo Hills Mission. (There they are apparently all collectively known as KUKATA). (c) the western neighbours of the Pintubi are known as PUTIDJARA (south west) and PITUNGU (north west: Canning Stock Route) and use the same subsection terms as the Rawlinson, Warburton and other western groups. There were several Pintubi families living with Putidjara people near Jupiter Well, which lies some 70 miles west of what was said to be the limit of Pintubi country (Pollock Hills). The group names given above by no means exhaust the terms used to refer to different dialectical groups but will serve to identify the groups that are distinguished from one another in the area. I propose to use this material in a paper perhaps for Oceania, which will add a footnote to Dr Berndt's recent article on 'The Concept of 'The Tribe' in the Western Desert of Australia' Vol XXX No 2, December 1959. I am sending some of the material to Mr Tindale who kindly supplied me with maps showing place and tribal names which he has gathered in the Western Desert areas, as well as genealogies recorded at Mt Liebig in 1932. 3. The Pintubi Way of Life : Data was gathered on kinship terms and obligations, totemic beliefs and customs, as well as on local organisation, family size, marriage, population distribution and the extent of normal travel. Some addi- tional material was gathered on food and water supplies. One interesting point was the reliance of these desert people in the dry times on the permanent (but usually salty) waters located, in limestone, especially near salt lakes and known as INDA (INDAWARA). Jupiter Well was sunk in a belt of this country only yards from a native soak (PUNDUDJARPA) and a few miles from another important water (NYINMI). Information was also gathered in the first contact of the Pintubi with the outside world and their earlier emigrations to the East. 4. I had intended to spend more time at Papunya making detailed enquiries into these subjects and starting some language work but as things worked out I had only odd days there until the last week after my return from the main field trip. In these few days I recorded a few tapes of vocabulary and usage, and a few totemic songs. Some sign language was recorded and short comparative vocabu- laries of the various dialects in the area were noted down. 5. Some incidental observations :- (a) Cattle were said to have been seen around Pollock Hills some years before and several were speared and eaten because there was one man (see census lists) who had worked in Western Australia as a stockman. (Cattle had been reported by the group seen in 1957 but were not killed, being regarded as MAMU (devils)). (b) I learnt from Mr Beadell (through Mr Macdougal) that his road making party (1960) had seen fires but no natives. Natives seemed to have had limited contact with the National Mapping party (1961), though one man and his family followed them from one camp to another. They then became acquainted with tea, damper, etc., and all groups were equipped with tins : the Northern group from camping on the road, the sandhills groups from Giles. (c) A species of Acacia which grows tall and straight is thick in one area west of Pollock Hills and provides an inexhaustible supply of spear shafts. All Papunya per- sonnel on both trips gathered these enthusiastically and returned with close to 100 spears all told, some of which have already been exported to Yuendumu. A site where stone knives 'Like butcher' knives' are said to be found could not be visited beacuse of the Landrovers' broken springs. (d) Some tjuringa were brought in from a hiding place in Pollock Hills by Nosepeg who was given them by their present custodians. He was enjoined to retain them at Papunya where there are now no such objects, all having been apparently sold to white people. (e) An important site associated with the 'bandicoot (TJALGU) dreaming' a few hundred yards west of the TJITURUBA soakage was shown to me in order that I could ensure that no white people dese- crate it and remove the objects. I described its location to Mr Macdougal and we agreed that the best way of ensuring its safety is to leave its location unreported and make no tracks to it. (f) After my 1957 trip to Lake Macdonald I recorded the names of 29 adult males, 23 of whom had families, and added another to the list when visiting Giles in 1961. Of these one had come in to Haast's Bluff in 1958 and another was met near Sir Frederick Range in 1961. Five more were positively identified among those seen on this trip; one was reported recently dead and another was reported living near Labbi-Labbi with his wives and one or two widows and young people (two children are at Yuendumu). One of the single men was with the Jupiter Well group and two other men and their families were with the Sandhills groups. Because of the risks of upsetting informants by mentioning the names of the dead it was not possible to press enquiries about the Unident- ified 18 men and their families. No doubt several have died and some may be recorded with different names. J P M Long Senior Research Officer Following is a list of people met during the patrol (A) Dovers Hill Group (1) (Kuli) ?Nadigi, Tjabaldjari, born 1924 (M(9), Br2(x), Sr(4) (1) Unnamed, Nagamara, born 1925 (i) Pawa, Tjungarai, born 1951, lame with burnt foot (2) Anyuba, Nambidjinba, born 1949, father is Windaru (died since 1957), M(10) Tjinaba --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (2) Wipudandja (Tjalyuri), Tjabaldjari, born 1932, M(9), Br1(x), Sr(4) (3) Manadji, Nambidjinba, born 1946, father is Windaru, sister is at Papunya, M(10) Tjinaba --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3) Nambulubala, Tjugudi, Tjagamara, born 1930, brother 5 (4) Murmuya, Nabaldjari, born 1938, M(9), Br1,2 (ii) Unnamed, Tjuburula, born 1958 (5) ?Pararanga, Nabaldjari, born 1942, M(6) (iii) Unnamed, Naburula, born 1961 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (4) Kuku, Tjungarai, born 1920 (6) Anmanari, Nangala, born 1927, M lives near Lake Hazlett (iv) ?Pararanga, Nabaldjari, born 1949, promised to 3 (v) Yakari-na, Nabaldjari, born 1952 (vi) Punditja, Tjabaldjari, born 1954 (vii) Payunga, Nabaldjari, born 1957 (7) Wangala, Nangala, born 1944, Br6. M lives near Jupiter Well (viii) Unnamed, Nabaldjari, born 1960 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (5) Paul Tjambuna Djungugarnga, Tjagamara, born 1946, Br3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (6) Gagamanei, Tjangala, born 1946, Sr(7) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (8) Ngangi, Nungarai, born 1935, Widow. Husband perished summer 1961-1962. Sr Nanguri at Papunya (ix) Unnamed, Nambidjimba, born 1959, suffering from yaws ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (9) Nanguri, Nangala, born 1909, Widow. Husband died 1962. (x) Unnamed, Tjabaldjari, born 1949, wears nose bone ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (7) Pipandji, Tjangala (10) Tjinaba, Nungarai, born 1924, first husband died since 1957 (xi) Yupupu, Nambidjimba, born 1956 NB This family was not seen, having gone south to the Sandhill group. This man may have another wife but is said to be married to this widow. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Persons seen- Males Females Adults 6 9 = 15 Children 4 6 = 10 Totals 10 15 = 25 (B) Sandhills (Patjantja) Group (1) Ngindji-Ngindji, Tjagamara, born 1912, Br Kulita at Papunya; 2 (1) Adrian, Tjuburula, born 1950, mother died at Warburton Mission Unnamed, Tjuburula, Mother died 1962. Br Narwina at Papunya ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (2) Tanalga, Tjagamara, born 1932, Br 1; Kulita (i) Minyanda, Nabaldjari, born 1944 (ii) Unnamed, Tjuburula, born 1961 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3) Yalai-ala, Tjungarai, born 1924, Sr Tjinaba a(10), Br Ngitjita at Papunya (2) Nyingura, Naburula, born 1938, Br Narwina, Sr Aninda near Lake Hopkins (iii) Mawitji, Tjabaldjari, born 1956 (iv) Unnamed, Nabaldjari, born 1960 NB This family was brought into Papunya for treatment of (iii)s burns ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (1) Unnamed, Nagamara, Br 1,2 (2) Mankadi-na, Nangala Muramura, Tjabaldjari Pikili ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (1) Yuntjialta, Tjuburula (3) Ngilarana, Nabananga (i) Payaranga, Nagamara (ii) Tiluru-na, Nagamara (4) Anmanari, Nabananga (iii) Nabala-na, Tjagamara, youth (iv) Gatili-na, Tjagamara, about to be initiated (v) Unduntja, Tjagamara (5) Tamara, Nabananga (vi) Yuwara, Nagamara (vii) Wangugarnga, Nagamara (6) Nyangura, Nabananga (viii) Jimmy?, Tjagamara, born 1956 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (2) (--atjari), Djindaga, Tjagamara, F Yuntjialta above (7) Katora, Nabaldjari (ix) Magi-na, Nabaldjari (8) Mitjikali, Nabaldjari (x) Unnamed, Naburula ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (3) Ngunpi, Tjabaldjari (4) Tjamindji, Tjungarai NB These two had visited the Dover Hills Group June 1962 to arrange a meeting for an initiation. Persons seen- Males Females Adults 3 2 = 5 Children 3 1 = 5 Totals 6 3 = 9 Persons not seen- (includes family of A7) Males Females Adults 5 8 = 13 Children 6 6 = 12 Totals 11 14 = 25 (C) Western Group Tracks seen Jupiter Well (14. 6.1962). (1) Mumudja (Yilta-na), Tjabanangga (1) Payuntji, Naburula (2) Irana, Naburula (i) Tjambu-na, Tjabangadi (ii) Kala-na, Tjabangadi (iii) Kandju-pandja, Tjabangadi (3) Nyugana-na, Naburula ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (2) Kantagra, Tjabangadi, has worked as stockman, tall (4) Payunguna, Nambidjimba (5) Kayu-kayu, Nambidjimba (6) Nambidjin, Nambidjimba ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (3) Pitaninya, Purukulu, 'Western' subsection terms (7) Nanunara, Karimara (8) Wanabadji, Karimara (9) Nyuniwa, Karimara ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (4) Nyunmulngu, Tjabaldjari ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Adult Males listed 19. 7.1962 (5) Ngambulinya, Tjaruru (6) Nyurnga, Purungu (7) Mimana-na, Iparuka (8) Kapalbunggu, Tjagamara (9) Malbanti-banti, Purungu (10) Winguru, Purungu (11) Tjinadinggilgira, Tjabaldjari (12) Ngaranba-na, Karimara (13) Talbunu, Karimara (14) Tirundja-na, Tjagamara (15) Kulatagara-na, Tjuburula (16) Yungguru-Muntjun, Purukulu (17) Inana, Tjabaldjari Total tracks seen Male Female Total Adults 4 9 13 Children 3 - 3 Totals 7 9 16 (Macdougal met (31. 7.1962) : Adult males = 2) Listed Adult males = 13