Report on Patrol west of Papunya April 1964

National Archives of Australia CRS F1/0 Item 1962/1843 Report on Patrol west of Papunya April 1964 by Jeremy Long Telegram dated 6 July 1964 about deaths To E DENTAFF DARWIN From DENTAFF Alice Springs Attention Director and Long reference Pintubi report female LUPIRA deceased 22 May 1964 previously notified female TJINGAPA deceased 2 July 1964 report following. Handwritten notes Lupira born 1938 3 children Tjingapa born 1934 __________________________________________________________________________ Report on Patrol west of Papunya April 1964 by Jeremy Long 1. Aims (a) To help WA and WRE patrols survey the population and condition of Aboriginals remaining in the desert; (b) To contact and offer transport East to any families wishing to join relatives now living in Northern Territory Reserve. (c) To obtain further records of the way of life of the desert Aboriginals. (d) To accompany geologist (Water Resources Branch) to Ehrenberg Range area to select bore sites. 2. Personnel Mr J P M Long (Investigation Officer), Mr P Mackey, Patrol Officer), Mr R Mackay (Mechanic), Mr I Dunlop (Photographer), and guides and interpreters recruited at Papunya. 3. Vehicles Landrover and 3 ton truck. 4. Narrative On 31st March and 1st April vehicles, stores and equipment were organised in Alice Springs. The patrol travelled as far as Dashwood Creek on 1st April, and was held up there by a transport bogged in the creek. The party reached Papunya the next afternoon and the BMR geologist, Mr Newell, arrived in another Landrover. On 3rd April bore sites were selected in the Ehrenberg Ranges. The Bedford truck was delayed at Papunya with trouble in the four wheel drive transmission and the Landrover returned to Papunya on 4th April. On 5th April a second start was made but the truck battery burnt out with a short circuit and the Landrover returned from the Ehrenbergs to Papunya to obtain a replacement battery. On monday, 6th April, a start was finally made from the Ehrenbergs. Petrol was dumped at Sandy Blight Junction for the WA party and the patrol camped in Dovers Hills, 25 miles over the border. On 7th April a party of women and children stopped the truck east of Pollock Hills and this group was taken in to the Wala Wala soakage in Pollock Hills. There were 12 people in this group most of whom had been met by earlier patrols and all of whom were keen to move to Papunya. They reported that another group should be moving on to a water in the western Pollock Hills and the patrol moved on 15 miles to camp that night after leaving adequate stores and an assistant with the Wala Wala group. On 8th April the morning was spent visiting a chalcedony stone knife 'quarry' west of the road, while the truck returned to meet the WA party at noon in Pollock Hills. Fuel was dumped here and the truck remained while the WA party was taken to Wala Wala where Dr Elphinstone and Dr Drummond made medical examinations. The whole party returned to the truck to camp. On thursday, 9th April, the party travelled west to Jupiter Well. Likil well was visited and smokes were seen to the north west. A supply of spears was taken out from Wudungu well, 40 miles east of Jupiter Well. There were no recent signs of people at Jupiter Well or on the road. The WA party was fuelled and watered on 10th April before proceeding north west to Well 35 on the Canning Stock Route. The Welfare Branch Patrol returned east. A smoke was sighted south east of Jupiter Well in low hills and a guide despatched to bring the group up to Likil well. The party camped near Likil and two guides left in the afternoon to bring in the group whose fires were again seen to the north. Next morning the Landrover was driven south using a National Mapping track used last year and early in the afternoon met the group being led in by our guide. These 11 people were taken north some 20 miles to the camp on the Landrover. Mean- while two guides had brought in a family of nine people from the north. These reported one man hunting alone and a group of 8 women and children further away to the north. On sunday, 12th April, a small group was left at Likil to try to bring in the people still out to the north and the rest were taken east to Wala Wala. Next morning, 18 people were embarked on the truck for the journey in to Liebig bore where two men from Papunya had earlied been left to search for good natural waters. A fuel dump was made at Dovers Hills and the Landrover taken south to search for the 'sandhills group' while the truck travelled east to camp at the Ehrenberg Range. On tuesday, 14th April, the Landrover party visited four dry wells in the sandhills and travelled some 40 miles west of Nadanga Hills. It was clear that the people found in this area in the two previous years had moved further south, and on wednesday, 15th April, the party returned to Dovers Hills, refuelled and camped at Mt Webb. On thursday, 16th April, the Landrover party returned to the Wala Wala camp. The WA party returning to Jupiter Well reported a family there and in the afternoon the Landrover party travelled west to Likil, meeting two of the WA Landrovers on the road. One man had come in to Likil but the group of women and children were said to be a considerable distance away to the north. The Landrover went to Jupiter Well and camped with the family there which had been met in August, 1963. Next morning Mr Harman reached Jupiter Well from the west, followed by Messrs. Macdougall and Macauley, WRE patrol officers. The family at the well was taken east to Likil on the Landrover. The truck had reached here from Papunya the previous evening with supplementary supplies of fuel and water. All Aboriginals were taken aboard the truck and transported to Wala Wala to camp that night. The WRE officers attended a short conference in the evening before starting east for Giles. On saturday, 18th April, the total of 34 people remaining after the first lift were taken east on the truck. We left the WA party after refuelling at Sandy Blight Junction and went on to camp at the Ehrenberg Range. Next morning was cold and windy after early morning showers and a start was delayed, but the party reached the Mt Liebig camp by 11am. Here the water searchers reported that no adequate supply had been found. Two hours were spent visiting Yamundurnga spring on the east side of the mountain but the supply here was also found to be inadequate and it was decided to move the whole group of 42 in to Papunya. we reached the settlement at 5pm and the immigrants were settled in the camp area by dark. 5. Comments In spite of the dry conditions contact was made relatively easily with the people who were brought in because they were expecting a visit at this time and were keen to move out of the desert. The joint patrol was in the area long enough to contact those living within a few days walk of the road, but several more weeks would have been needed to effect a clean sweep of those who are awaiting evacuation. The numbers still remaining who have had direct or indirect contact with Welfare Branch patrols and who, as well as one can tell, wish to leave the area, are detailed in Appendix II. I suggest that the most efficient method of following up the work of the patrol will be to send a patrol officer in a Landrover with suitable guides from Papunya to revisit the Pollock Hills / Likil / Jupiter Well area in say, early June and in August. The Bonython Hills area south of Lake Macdonald should be visited at the same time if WRE officers do not meanwhile make contact with the group which is probably there or west of the Sir Frederick Range. Mr Harman has indicated that Mr Taylor may be able to visit the area in August. It was suggested by guides that the group of women and children north of Likil might best be found by using the Lake Mackay track from Mt Doreen Station. If this group does not move south to the road this winter, I recommend that a patrol be sent in May, 1965, to explore the area west of the Alec Ross Range for them. Travel north of the road near Likil is impossible for Landrovers because of dense high sandridges. It is unfortunate that drought conditions prevented camping the immigrants west of Papunya. It was a stunning experience for the group to go into this crowded settlement and the transition from nomadic to settlement living will be altogether too abrupt. It should. however, be possible for the health, at least, of the group to be kept under close watch there. Lists of names, ages and family groups were supplied to the Superintendent, the Sister-in-charge and the Aerial Medical Service in Alice Springs. Dr Elphinstone has undertaken to provide results of this medical examinations and of blood sampling to the AMS in Alice Springs. The group includes two men and one woman definately needing medical treatment and one or two children with possible yaws. Meeting and 'setting-up' ceremonies on the evenings of the 19th and 20th April were conducted without bloodshed as far as the immigrants were concerned. One of the immigrants was held responsible for the death of a woman at Papunya in 1962, but this affair appears to have been settled. Ill feeling about the remarriage of a widow who walked in with a group last year led to the wounding of two of last year's immigrants after the second 'settling-up' on 20th April, but this affair also may possibly be considered settled. A total of 67 persons have now walked or been brought in to Papunya from the west since August 1962. Taken with the 40-odd who immigrated between 1956 and 1958 and some immigrants from the Rawlinson Range area, these now make up a substantial proportion of the Papunya population. A further 3-=odd people remain in the desert who are likely to emigrate within the next few months. The need is more urgent than before to establish a ration depot to the west where these recent arrivals can make their adjustment to a new way of life under more favourable circumstances and without holding back the development of the more acculturated majority at Papunya. J P M Long Investigation Officer (Social Welfare) Census Notes: People contacted and evacuated. (a) Pollock Hills (7. 4.1964) (1) Kirindji (Kuku), Tjungarayi, born 1920, husband (Met 1962, 1963) (a) Anmanari, Nangala, born 1927, wife (Oldest daughter married; at Papunya 1963) (i) Yakari, Napaltjari, born 1950, female child (Husband George Tjakamara, guide) (ii) Punditja, Tjapaltjari, born 1952, male child (iii) Payu, Napaltjari, born 1955, female child (iv) Wanguka, Napaltjari, born 1960, female child (Mother died 1963) (2) Pipandji, Tjangala, born 1936, husband (Sores head and chest) (a) Tjingapa, Nungarayi, born 1924, wife (First husband died; met 1957; three older daughters married at Papunya) (i) Yupupu, Tjampitjinba, born 1956, male child (3) Ngata, Nungarayi, born 1932, widow (Widow; older son and sisters at Papunya; met 1963) (i) Tjiwi, Tjampitjinba, born 1958, male child (b) South of Likil (11. 4.1964) (5) Yumbuluru, Tjungarayi, born 1930, husband (Malformation and sores right arm) (a) Piyungku, Napurula, born 1944, wife (Brothers to west) (i) Ngampuyalpir, Tjapangati, born 1960, male child (ii) Unnamed male child, Tjapangati, born July 1963 (6) Yanatjari, Tjampitjimba (Tjakamara), born 1930, husband (Met 1963) (a) Mamuru (Nindjiri), Purungu, born 1936, wife 1 (i) Tintuntjara, Tjangala, born 1956, male child (ii) Nangatji, Nangala, born 1961, female child (Penicillin for yaws 1963) (b) Tjungkaya, Napangati, born 1920, wife 2 (Oldest son Pipandji; another son at Papunya) (i) Unnamed female child, Nangala, born 1959 (Penicillin for yaws 1963) (c) Yakitjara, Napangati, born 1946, wife 3 (Father Mamutja; married December 1963) (c) North of Likil (11. 4.1964) (7) Mamutja (Yilta), Tjapanangga, born 1899, husband (Met by W.A. party at Jupiter Well 1963) (a) Nangatji (Iya), Napurula, wife 1 (Not seen) (i) Tjampu, Tjapangati, born 1949, male child (b) Payuntji, Napurula, born 1927, wife 2 (Older daughter Yakitjara (1946)) (i) Kala, Tjapangati, born 1950, male child (ii) Kalyuri, Napangati, born 1954, female child (c) Nyuga, Napurula, born 1920, wife 3 (Sores head and chest) (i) Nyuniwa, Napangati, born 1948, female child (ii) Katju-patja, Tjapangati, born 1951, male child (iii) Bambatu, Napangati, born 1955, female child (8) Pitani, Purkulu, born 1926, husband (a) Nanyuma, Napangati, wife (Not seen; mother Nangatji; father Mamutja) (i) Unnamed male child, Tjangala (Not seen) (d) Jupiter Well (16. 4.1964) (9) Tjinakatara (Kulaya-tjukurba), Tjapangati, born 1927, husband (a) Lupira, Nampitjinba, born 1938, wife 1 (i) Tikali, Napanangga, born 1954, female (ii) Yinarki (Mandji), Tjapanangga, born 1960, male (iii) Unnamed female child, Napanangga, born 1962 (b) Payungu, Nampitjinba, born 1942, wife 2 (i) Manyayi, Tjapanangga, born 1959, male child (Penicillin for yaws 1963) (c) Kayu-kayu, Nampitjinba, born 1946, wife 3 (i) Tjampu, Tjapanangga, born 1961, male child (Penicillin for yaws 1964) SUMMARY Male Female Total Adults 8 12 20 Children 13 9 22 Total 21 21 42 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Census Notes : Groups not met April 1964 (a) (1) Tangala, Tjakamara, born 1932, husband (Met 1962, 1963) (a) Minyandu, Napaltjari, born 1944, wife (2) Ngindji-Ngindji, Tjakamara, born 1912, widower (Met 1962, 1963; widower) (i) Adrian, Tjupurula, born 1951, male child (Mother died at Warburton Mission) (ii) Pilti, Tjupurula, born 1953, male child (Mother died) (3) Wanatjura, Nakamara, female (Elderly; not seen) The above group have been met south-west of Dovers Hills and south-west of Lake MacDonald. Possibly in the Lake MacDonald / Sir Frederick Range area. The first man has been to Papunya. (b) (4) Yuntjiyalta, Tjupurula, husband (This man is indicated by pointing to throat) (a) Ngilara, Napanangga, wife 1 (Has two daughters married to men living in the south-west) (b) Anmanari, Napanangga, wife 2 (i) Napala, Tjakamara, born about 1946, male child (ii) Katili, Tjakamara, born about 1949, male child (iii) Tjampu (Unduntja), Tjakamara, male child (c) Tanara, Napanangga, wife 3 (i) Yuwara, Nakamara, born about 1952, female child (ii) Wanguka, Nakamara, born about 1955, female child (d) Nyunya (Nyingura?), Napanangga, wife 4 (Sister at Papunya) (i) Unnamed male child, Tjakamara, born about 1956 (5) Tjintaga (Yanatjari), Tjakamara, husband (Father Yuntjiyalta; mother Anmanari) (a) Katara (Nguya), Napaltjari, wife 1 (b) Mitjikali, Napaltjari, wife 2 (i) Unnamed female child (ii) Unnamed female child These families believed to be south of Pollock Hills. (c) (6) Nyawipayi (Yaliti), Tjangala, born 1898, husband (Met 1963 at Jupiter Well) (a) Manyi, Nungarayi, born 1922, wife (Sister at Yuendumu. Three older daughters now at Papunya.) (i) Nari, Tjampitjinba, born 1949, male child (ii) Tjangkayi, Nampitjinba, born 1959, female child This man is believed to be south-east of Jupiter Well and may be with Yuntjiyalta above. (d) (7) Nangatji (Iya), Napurula, female (Husband Mamutja at Papunya) (8) Nanyuma, Napangati, female (Husband Pitani at Papunya) (i) Unnamed male child, Tjangala (Possibly a girl: Nanupu, Nangala / Panaka) (9) Watjungka, Nangala, born about 1943, widow (10) Wutuka, Nangala, born about 1943, widow (Three children, all Tjapaltjari) (11) Landil, Tjapanangga, husband (From Balgo Mission) (a) Mangatji (Wantaya), Nangala, wife (Stole one of three widows; former co-wife of (9) and (10) above; may have children at Yuendumu) These are reported to be far north of Likil Well, possibly travelling in the Manggay area (Waterlander Breakaway?). SUMMARY Male Female Total Adults 6 14 20 Children 11 5 16 Totals 17 19 36 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Census Notes: People reported in the area south and south-west of Jupiter Well (1) Tirundja, Tjampitjinba, husband (a) Mana-na, Napaltjari, wife (Brother Nyunmul) (i) Tjupwula, child (ii) Napurula (2) Talpunu, Karimara, husband (Initiated with Nyunmul) (a) Nyungala, Purungu (Napaltjari), wife (3) Tjina-Tingka (Tjina-Tingkilkira), Tjapaltjari, husband, old man (a) Tiluru or Parara?, Nakamara, wife (Father Yuntjiyalta) (4) Tjitiwinba (Tjituwi), Purungu, husband (a) Mawitja, Nakamara, wife (Father Yuntjiyalta) (5) Kunguya, Nungarayi (Brother Yumbuluru; widow) (6) No details of families obtained; list supplied at Jupiter Well 19. 7.1962. Ngambuli-nya, Tjaruru Nyur-nga, Purungu Mimana, Yiparku Kapalbunggu, Tjagamara Malbantibanti, Purungu Winguru, Purungu Ngaranba, Karimara Kulatagara, Tjupurula Yungguru-Muntjun, Purkulu Ina-na, Tjapaltjari ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Photographs attached to the report. I Group of women and children met by the road east of Pollock Hills, 7th April. II Nyunmulnga, Tjapaltjari, a single man, met near Wala Wala - 7th April. III Kirindji, Tjungarayi, near Wala Wala, 7th April IV Pipandji, Tjangala, coming into Wala Wala Camp - 7th April.1 V Mamutja, Tjapanangga, near Likil Well - 11th April. VI Two men brought in to Likil Well from the south - 11th APril; Yumbuluru, Tjungarayi and Yanatjari, Tjampitjinba. VII Yumbuluru showing sores and malformation of right arm. VIII Clothing and blankets were issued for the journey east to Papunya - 12th April. IX Vehicles of the WA party (left) and NT Party (right) at Pollock Hills - 8th April. X All vehicles were refuelled and watered at Jupiter Well - 10th April. XI A sandhill 20 miles east of Jupiter Well proved difficult for the truck - 10th April. XII Embarking emigrants on the truck at Wala Wala - 18th April.